بررسی ارتباط خاصیت آب‌گریزی با گونه‌های درختان جنگلی، مخازن کربن آلی خاک و پایداری خاکدانه‌ها (پژوهش موردی: ایستگاه تحقیقات بذر و نهال گونه‌های جنگلی شلمان، استان گیلان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 جهاد کشاورزی

2 هیئت علمی گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه زنجان

3 هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گیلان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: خاصیت آب‌گریزی خاک شامل مقاومت خاک در برابر خیسیدگی است که می‌تواند سبب کاهش سرعت نفوذ آب برای چند ثانیه تا ساعت‌ها و یا حتی هفته‌ها گردد. در کنار اثرات سوء آب‌گریزی خاک در پژوهش‌های علمی، به نقش مثبت آن در بسیاری از پدیده‌ها از قبیل ساختمان خاک نیز اشاره شده است. در حالی که بسیاری از مطالعات مواد آلی خاک را به عنوان منشاء شیمیایی آب‌گریزی معرفی می‌کنند، اما برخی دیگر عدم ارتباط معنی‌دار میان این دو صفت را گزارش کرده‌اند. به نظر می‌رسد شناسایی گروه‌های عاملی آبگریز به جای در نظر گرفتن کل توده کربن آلی خاک به کمک روش‌ جداسازی مخازن کربن آلی بر اساس ذرات تشکیل دهنده خاک بتواند اطلاعات با‌ارزشی را در رابطه با میزان و منشاء آب‌گریزی خاک ارائه دهد. لذا تحقیق حاضر جهت بررسی ارتباط مخازن مختلف کربن آلی با خاصیت آب‌گریزی خاک و همچنین نظر به مطالعات اندک صورت گرفته در خصوص نحوه تأثیر آب‌گریزی خاک بر ساختمان خاکدانه‌ها طراحی و به مرحله اجرا درآمد.
مواد و روش‌ها: نمونه‌هایی از اعماق 5-0، 10-5 و20-10 سانتی‌متری از خاک تحت پوشش گونه‌های درختی شامل کاج تدا (Pinus taeda)، دارتالاب (Taxodium distichum)، ارس (Juniperus polycarpos)، توسکا (Alnus glutinosa)، بلوط بلندمازو (Quercus castaneifolia) و سفیدپلت (Populus caspica) جمع‌آوری گردید. در این نمونه‌ها مخازن کربن آلی به تفکیک ذرات اولیه خاک، میزان آب‌گریزی، اسیدیته و میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه اندازه‌گیری و پس از تجزیه واریانس دوطرفه، داده‌ها بر اساس متغیرهای مستقل(گونه درختی و عمق) در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با آرایش فاکتوریل مورد آنالیز آماری قرار گرفته و جهت بررسی وضعیت ارتباط میان صفات مورد اندازه‌گیری از همبستگی پیرسون استفاده گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج اولیه بیانگر تأثیر گونه‌های درختی و عمق بر میزان خاصیت آب‌گریزی خاک و صفات اندازه‌گیری شده مورد بررسی می‌باشد. بیشترین زمان‌های ثبت شده برای وضعیت آب‌گریزی خاک در ضخامت 5-0 سانتی متری ثبت شد. از میان گونه‌های مورد بررسی، کاج تدا، دارتالاب و ارس دارای بیشترین تنوع کلاس‌های آب‌گریزی بودند به طوری که نمونه‌های با زمان آب‌گریزی بیش از یک ساعت صرفاً در لایه 5-0 سانتی متری و در خاک تحت پوشش کاج تدا و دارتالاب به ترتیب با مقادیر 33/13 و 33/3 درصد نمونه‌های جمع آوری شده مشاهده گردید و کمترین آن در نمونه‌های درختان سفیدپلت، توسکا و بلوط اندازه‌گیری شد. با افزایش عمق خاک، زمان آب‌گریزی در تمامی گونه‌ها کاهش یافت به گونه‌ای که 22/82 درصد از کل نمونه‌های جمع آوری شده از عمق 20-10 سانتی‌متری دارای زمان آب‌گریزی 5-0 ثانیه بودند. علی‌رغم وجود همبستگی میان کربن آلی کل و آب‌گریزی (r=0.19, P نتیجه‌گیری: وجود همبستگی معنی‌دار میان آب‌گریزی با میزان کربن آلی جزء شن بیانگر تجمع ترکیبات کربنه آب‌گریز در جزء شن بوده لذا این بخش از کربن آلی کنترل کننده میزان آب‌گریزی خاک محدوده مورد مطالعه می‌باشد. با این وجود کاهش پ‌هاش خاک و همچنین درجه پوسیدگی مواد آلی می‌تواند بر کیفیت ماده آلی خاک اثر گذاشته و متعاقب آن منجر به کاهش خاصیت آب‌گریزی خاک گردد. علیرغم نقش مواد آلی و جزء آب‌گریز آن در تشکیل و پایداری خاکدانه‌ها ولی کیفیت نامطلوب ماده آلی، وجود پ‌هاش پایین و تشکیل خاکدانه‌های کوچک در خاک‌های تحت پوشش درختان سوزنی‌برگ ایجاب می‌کند که در انتخاب درختان سوزنی‌برگ برای پروژه‌های جنگل‌کاری و فضای سبز این موارد در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the soil water repellency in relation to tree species, soil organic carbon pools and aggregate stability (Case study: Shalman Seed and Seedling of Forest Tree Species Research Station, Guilan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Karim Atashnama 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Abdollah Mousavi Koupar 3
2 Faculty of Soil Science Department, Zanjan University.
3 Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center of Guilan
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Soil water repellency (SWR) is a soil characteristic that creates strong resistance to water penetration and decreases infiltration time from a few seconds to hours, days or weeks. The undesirable consequences of SWR have received interest from the scientific literature. However, the SWR has some beneficial aspects like increasing aggregate stability. Although several authors have reported the soil organic carbon as the origin of SWR but it seems only some parts of the soil organic carbon are hydrophobic and are involved in SWR. Thus, the aims of this study were: (a) to determine which soil organic carbon pools are linked with SWR, (b) to assess the impact of SWR on aggregate stability and (c) to determine which vegetative cover produce more hydrophobic organic compounds and contribute to SWR.
Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm layers of the lands under different forest tree species including Populus caspica, Oak (Quercus castaneifolia), Alder (Alnus glutinosa), Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Juniper (Juniperus polycarpos). The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon content, pH, water repellency and aggregate stability (MWD) and were also separated to different organic matter pools based on particle size fractionation. The experimental variables were soil depth and kinds of vegetative cover and the data obtained from the soil samples were analyzed statistically by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a factorial experiment with completely randomized design and 30 replications. Also Pearson linear correlation was used to indicate the relationships between the measure characteristics.
Results: The vegetative covers and soil depths had significant impacts on SWR and the measured soil properties. The highest water drop penetration time (WDPT) was measured for the surface soil layer (0-5 cm). About 13.33 and 3.33 % (n=30) of the samples collected from the soil surface under P. taeda and T. distichum had the more than one hour WDPT (extremely repellent class). In contrast, the lowest SWR classes were mostly observed under the vegetative covers of P. caspica, Q. castaneifolia and A. glutinosa which were broadleaves tree species. The water repellency decreased with soil depth and 82.22% of the soil samples collected from the 10-20 cm layer of all tree species (n=180) determined as wettable soil (WDPT< 5 s). The Pearson linear correlation showed a positive relationship among SWR and total organic carbon (r=0.19, P Conclusion: The strong correlation between SWR and the organic carbon content of the sand fraction indicates that this fraction contains organic compounds that contribute to SWR. Increase in soil pH and extent of decomposition of soil organic matter, however changes the solubility of soil organic matter and decrease SWR. As the soil aggregation depends on the total soil organic carbon content, the stability of aggregates is affected by hydrophobic fraction of soil organic carbon. Despite the extreme SWR in coniferous, Considering the undesirable quality of soil under coniferous trees such as low pH, MWD and organic carbon content, it is recommended to use discretion in the selection of these species for afforestation and reforestation projects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil water repellency
  • Aggregate stability
  • sand fraction
  • soil organic carbon pools
  • depth
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