تاثیر قارچ کلاروییدوگلوموس اتونیکاتوم، ورمی‌کمپوست و منابع فسفات بر کلنیزاسیون ریشه و رشد کاهو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: فسفر از عناصر ضروری پرمصرف گیاهان است. در خاک‌های آهکی به دلیل پ‌هاش بالا، وجود کربنات کلسیم، کمبود ماده آلی و رطوبت خاک، مقدار فسفر قابل جذب گیاه بسیار کم بوده و همچنین کانی‌های دارای فسفر در شرایط معمولی انحلال پذیری کمتری دارند. مایه‌زنی قارچ‌های آربوسکولار جهت افزایش رشد و عملکرد گیاهان توجه بسیاری را به خود جلب کرده است. قارچ‌های آربوسکولار با افزایش جذب فسفر (از طریق جذب درون ریشه‌ای و برون ریشه‌ای و همچنین حل فسفات‌های نا محلول آلی و معدنی) و سایر عناصر غذایی و آب، سبب افزایش رشد گیاه می‌شوند. ورمی‌کمپوست بدلیل داشتن عناصر غذایی مواد محرک رشد و ریزجانداران مفید، رشد گیاهان را افزایش می‌دهد. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثر قارچ آربوسکولار، ورمی‌کمپوست و منابع مختلف فسفات بر کلنیزاسیون ریشه، وزن تر و خشک، شاخص سبزینگی، تعداد برگ‌ و مقدار جذب فسفردر گیاه کاهو در یک خاک آهکی انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این تحقیق به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملا تصادفی درسه تکرار و با سه فاکتور در یک خاک آهکی انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل قارچ در دو سطح (بدون قارچ و دارای قارچ کلاروییدوگلوموس اتونیکاتوم (AM))، منابع فسفات در چهار سطح (شاهد (P0)، خاک فسفات معدن آسفوردی یزد (RP)، تری‌کلسیم فسفات (TCP) و سوپر فسفات تریپل (SP) به میزان 25 میلی‌گرم فسفر در کیلوگرم خاک)، ورمی‌کمپوست در دو سطح (شاهد و یک درصد وزنی خاک) بود. خاک به صورت غیر استریل استفاده شد و خصوصیات خاک و ورمی‌کمپوست با روش‌های استاندارد اندازه‌گیری گردید. بذر کاهو رقم فردوس (Ferdos) کشت شد. حدود 10 هفته بعد از کاشت شاخص سبزینگی، ارتفاع، تعداد برگ، وزن تر، وزن خشک، درصد کلنیزاسیون ریشه و جذب فسفردر گیاه اندازه گیری‌گردید. داده‌ها با نرم افزار آماریSAS تجزیه و تحلیل شدند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست موجب افزایش و کاربرد منابع فسفات موجب کاهش معنادار درصد کلنیزاسیون ریشه کاهو گردید. بیشترین مقدار کلنیزاسیون ریشه در تیمار تلفیقی ورمی کمپوست و قارچ و در عدم حضور منابع فسفات مشاهده شد. مایه‌زنی قارچ، وزن خشک کاهو و جذب فسفر را به طور معنادار افزایش داد. کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست سبب افزایش وزن تر، وزن خشک، تعداد برگ کاهو، شاخص سبزینگی و جذب فسفر شد. کاربرد سوپرفسفات تریپل سبب افزایش وزن خشک و تر و جذب فسفر کاهو شد اما شاخص سبزینگی را کاهش داد. خاک فسفات سبب کاهش شاخص سبزینگی شد اما وزن خشک اندام هوایی و جذب فسفر کاهو را افزایش داد. برهمکنش مایه‌زنی قارچ، ورمی‌کمپوست و منابع فسفات سبب افزایش وزن تر، وزن خشک، تعداد برگ و جذب فسفر کاهو شد.
نتیجه گیری: استفاده از کودهای زیستی (ورمی کمپوست و قارچ آربوسکولار) به همراه منابع کم محلول فسفات (خاک فسفات و تری کلسیم فسفات) می تواند جذب فسفر و رشد گیاه کاهو را افزایش و مصرف کود شیمیایی سوپر فسفات تریپل را کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Claroideoglomus etunicatum, vermicompost and phosphate sources on root colonization and growth of lettuce

چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Phosphorus is one of the important macro nutrients. Available phosphorus in calcareous soils is low, due to high pH and calcium carbonate, and low amounts of organic matters and moisture, also phosphate minerals are insoluble in such conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation for improving plant growth and yield has become so attractive recently. The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with increasing phosphorus uptake (through phosphorus uptake by extra and intraradical mycelia and also solubilizing inorganic and organic insoluble phosphates), other nutrients and water cause increase in plant growth. Vermicompost increases the growth of plants due to having nutrients, plant growth regulators and beneficial microorganisms. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and phosphate sources on root colonization, shoot fresh and dry weights, number of leaves, chlorophyll index and phosphorus uptake of lettuce in a calcareous soil.
Materials and methods: A greenhouse experiments was conducted with factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with three factors and replications in a calcareous soil. Treatments consisted of two levels of arbuscular mycorrhiza (Claroideoglomus etunicatum (AM)) (with and without inoculation), two levels of vermicompost (0 and 1% w/w) and four phosphate sources (control (P0), rock phosphate (RP), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and triple super phosphate (SP) at 25 mg P kg-1 level). Non sterile soil was used and its characteristics along with vermicompost were analyzed by standard methods. Seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cv. Ferdos were planted. After 10 weeks after planting, chlorophyll contents, leaves numbers, fresh and dry weights, root colonization and phosphorus uptake were measured. Data were analyzed with SAS statistical software.
Results: Application of vermicompost increased root colonization and phosphate sources decreased it. The highest rate of root colonization was observed in co-application treatments of vermicompost and arbuscular fungus and in the absence of phosphate sources. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased shoot dry weight and phosphorus uptake. Vermicompost application increased shoot fresh and dry weights, number of leaves, chlorophyll index and phosphorus uptake. Application of SP increased shoot fresh and dry weights and decreased chlorophyll index and phosphorus uptake. Application of RP decreased chlorophyll index and increased shoot dry weight and phosphorus uptake. Co-application of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and phosphate sources increased shoot fresh and dry weights, number of leaves and phosphorus uptake.
Conclusion: Application of biofertilizers (vermicompost and arbuscular fungi) along with insoluble phosphate source (RP and TCP) can be increased phosphorus uptake and plant growth and reduced the consumption of chemical fertilizers especially SP.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arbuscular fungi
  • Biofertilizer
  • Growth parameters
  • lettuce
  • insoluble phosphate
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