برهمکنش میکوریزا، پلیت مرغی و کلسیم بر عملکرد و خصوصیات کیفی میوه انار(Punica granatum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران.

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی - واحد داراب

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کلسیم یک عنصر ضروری موثر در کیفیت میوه است. میوه‌هایی که کلسیم کافی دارند قابلیت حمل و نقل و انبارداری بیشتری دارند (4، 21 و 22). همزیستی میکوریزایی به دلیل افزایش جذب آب و مواد غذایی و همچنین به علت افزایش فعالیت فتوسنتزی، زیست‌توده گیاهی را افزایش میدهد ( 36 و 37). گیاهانی که همزیستی میکوریزایی دارند، رشد بهتر و عملکرد بیشتری داشته و به استرس محیطی مقاومت بیشتری نشان میدهند (40). کود‌های آلی می‌توانند باعث بهبود مواد آلی و سلامت خاک و تامین عناصر غذایی گیاه گردند. (3 و 6). امیری و فلاحی (2009) گزارش نمودند که با استفاده از کود دامی در سیب عملکرد و متوسط وزن میوه سیب افزایش معنیداری یافت (3). به منظور مطالعه اثرات اصلی و توام میکوریزا، کلسیم و پلیت مرغی بر تولید انار، این تحقیق در استان فارس انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: به منظور دستیابی به اهداف مورد نظر، در سال 1393، تحقیقی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 12 تیمار در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی ترکیبی از دو سطح صفر و 500 گرم قارچ برای هر درخت ، سه سطح صفر، 250 و 500 گرم کود پلیت مرغی دامی به ازا هر درخت و دو تیمار بدون محلولپاشی و محلول پاشی کلرید کلسیم با غلظت 5/0 درصد بود. هر تیمار بر روی دو اصله درخت انار ده ساله با شرایط رشدی تقریبا یکنواخت اعمال شد. صفات مورد اندازه گیری در آزمایش شامل عملکرد هر درخت، مقادیر اسیدیته، بریکس، کربوهیدرات‌ها و فنولیک اسیدها (سیناپیک اسید، گالیک اسید، کاتچین، راتین و اسکوربیک اسید) در میوه انار بود. کلیه داده‌های به دست آمده توسط نرم افزار آماری SAS تجزیه و تحلیل شدند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که اثرات اصلی کاربرد تیمارها مختلف بر کاهش اسیدیته آب میوه معنی‌دار بود. کاربرد میکوریزا بجز سیناپیک اسید، مقدار سایر ویژگی‌های مورد مطالعه را بطور معنی‌داری (P<0.01) افزایش داد. محلولپاشی کلسیم بجز بر کربوهیدرات، تاثیر معنی‌داری (P<0.01) بر مقادیر دیگر صفات مورد مطالعه، از جمله پلی‌فنول‌ها، داشت. کاربرد پلیت مرغی موجب افزایش معنی‌دار کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه گردید. کاربرد توأم میکوریزا، پلیت مرغی و کلسیم به غیر از وزن میوه و اسیدیته آب میوه ، تاثیر معنی‌داری (P<0.01) بر دیگر صفات مورد بررسی داشت. کمترین میزان pH آب میوه، بیشترین میانگین وزن 5 میوه و بالاترین مقادیر سیناپیک اسید، گالیک اسید، کاتچین، راتین و اسکوربیک اسید از کاربرد توام 500 گرم میکوریزا، 500 گرم پلیت مرغی به ازا هر درخت و محلولپاشی کلسیم به دست آمد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد میکوریزا، کود دامی و محلولپاشی کلسیم در انار، در افزایش تولید و بهبود کیفیت آن بسیار موثر است. بالاترین عملکرد انار در هر درخت (04/24 کیلوگرم در درخت) از کاربرد توام 500 گرم میکوریزا، 500 گرم پلیت مرغی در هر درخت محلولپاشی کلسیم به دست آمد که در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد، 6/42 درصد افزایش عملکرد داشت. در مجموع، با توجه به یکساله بودن آزمایش، حصول نتایج قابل اطمینان تر نیاز به بررسی بیشتر دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mycorrhiza, plate's avain fertilizer and calcium application effects on the yield and quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit

چکیده [English]

Background: Calcium is an essential element affecting fruit quality. Fruits that have enough calcium have greater capability to transport and warehousing (2, 21 and 22). Mycorrhizal symbiosis due to the increases uptake of water and nutrients, as well as due to increases photosynthesis activities, can increases plant biomass (36 and 37). Plants with mycorrhizal symbiosis, has better growth and higher yield and show greater resistance to stresses (40). Manure can improve soil organic matter and soil health (3 and 6). Amiri and Fallahi (2009) reported that by use of manure in apple, yield and average fruit weight significantly increases (3). In order to study the main and combined effects of mycorrhiza, calcium and manure on the pomegranate production, this research was conducted in Fars province.
Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the desired goals, in 2014, an experiment were conducted as factorial in a randomized completely block design with 12 treatments in three replicates. Experimental factors were included combinations of two levels of 0 and 500 g.tree-1 mycorrhiza, three levels of 0, 250 and 500 g.tree-1 manure and two treatments of without foliar spray and foliar spray of calcium chloride with 0.5% concentration. Treatments were carried out on two ten-year-old pomegranate trees with almost uniform growing conditions. The measured traits were including yield per tree, contents of pH, berix, carbohydrates and phenolic acids (sinapic acid, gallic acid, catechin, rutin and ascorbic acid) in the pomegranate fruits. All obtained data were analyzed with SAS software.
Results and Discussion The results showed that main effects of different treatments on the decreasing of pomegranate juice acidity were significant. Mycorrhiza application, except sinapic acid, significantly (P<0.01) increased the others studied properties. Foliar applications of calcium chloride, except the amount of carbohydrates, had a significant effects (P<0.01) on the other studied properties, such as polyphenols. The manure application significantly increased all of studied properties. The combined application of mycorrhiza, manure and calcium, with the exception of fruit weight and juice acidity had a significant effect (P <0.01) on other traits. The lowest juice pH, the highest average weight of 5 fruits, and highest values of sinapic acid, gallic acid, catechin, rutine and ascorbic acid were obtained from combined application of 500 g.tree-1 mycorrhiza, 500 g manure.tree-1 and calcium chloride spraying.
Conclusion: The results showed that application of mycorrhiza, manure and calcium spraying in pomegranates are very effective in increasing of its production and improving its quality. The highest yield (24.04 kg.tree-1) were obtained from combined application of 500 g.tree-1 mycorrhiza, 500 g.tree-1 of manure and calcium chloride spray which in compared with the control treatment showed 42.6% increase in yield. In general, due to one year of testing, to achieve more reliable results need to investigate further.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Calcium chloride
  • Manure
  • mycorrhizal fungi and phenolic acids and Pomegranate
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