اثرتنش کم آبی و قارچ های میکوریزی Rhizophagus intraradices و Funneliformis mosseae برخصوصیات رشدی و جذب برخی عناصر در عدس

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


1 استاد گروه مهندسی علوم خاک دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه تهران

3 هیئت علمی موسسه تحقیقات آب و خاک کشور


سابقه و هدف: کمبود آب یکی از عوامل محدودکننده‌ی تولید محصولات کشاورزی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک است. در سال‌های اخیر ریزسازواره‌های مفید به‌عنوان یکی از راه‌کارهای کاهش اثرات تنش خشکی و افزایش تولید محصول در کشاورزی پایدار ارزیابی‌شده‌اند. بنابراین این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی تأثیر قارچ‌های میکوریزی بر رشد و جذب برخی عناصر گیاه عدس (رقم بیله سوار) تحت تنش شرایط کم‌آبی انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایشی در آرایش فاکتوریل به‌صورت طرح کامل تصادفی شامل دو فاکتور، تنش رطوبتی در چهار سطح (20%، 40%، 60% و 80% رطوبت قابل دسترس) و فاکتور دوم نوع قارچ میکوریزی در چهار سطح Rhizophagus intraradices و Funneliformis mosseae، مخلوط دو گونه و شاهد در اتاقک‌های رشد در گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشگاه تهران طراحی و در سال 1393 انجام گرفت. پس از طی دوره‌ی رشد، صفات رشدی شامل ماده‌ی خشک شاخساره، وزن خشک ‌ریشه، تعداد غلاف، کلروفیل برگ، کلنیزاسیون ریشه، ارتفاع گیاه و عناصر N, P, K, Fe, Zn در شاخساره اندازه‌گیری شد. و تجزیه تحلیل آماری داده‌ها با نرم‌افزارSAS و مقایسه‌ی میانگین داده‌ها با آزمون چند دامنه‌ای دانکن در سطح پنج درصد انجام گرفت.
یافته‌ها : نتایج نشان داد در اثر تنش کم آبی تمام صفات گیاهی اندازه‌گیری شده کاهش یافت به طوری که ماده‌ی خشک شاخساره، وزن خشک ‌ریشه، تعداد غلاف، شاخص کلروفیل برگ، کلنیزاسیون ریشه و ارتفاع گیاه در بالاترین سطح تنشS1 نسبت به شاهد NS به ترتیب 99/49، 12/41، 2/11، 4/24، 06/26، 09/28 و 15/22 درصد کاهش یافتند. همچنین اثر متقابل تنش کم آبی و گونه‌ی قارچ میکوریز بر تمام صفات اندازه گیری شده بجز ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک ریشه، عدد کلروفیل، روی، فسفر و پتاسیم در سطح پنج‌درصد معنی دار بود. تمام صفات اندازه‌گیری شده در گیاهان تلقیح شده با قارچ میکوریزی با گیاهان غیر میکوریزی بالاتربود. بیشترین تعداد غلاف، وزن خشک شاخساره و آهن در تیمار M1NS بدست آمد که به ترتیب نسبت به شاهد 51، 07/36، 48/79 درصد بیشتر بود. بیشترین میزان کلنیزاسیون ریشه در تیمار S3M2 به میزان 3/87 درصد و کمترین مقدار در تیمار S1NM به میزان 25/8 درصد به دست آمد. همچنین قارچ‌های میکوریزی R. intraradices، F. mosseae و مخلوط دو گونه محتوای آهن در شاخساره رابه ترتیب 2/89 ،0/45، 7/33 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش دادند.
نتیجه‌گیری:تنش کم آبی تاثیر منفی برتمام شاخص های رشد داشت اما بیشترین کاهش در وزن خشک ریشه و شاخساره دید شد. کاربرد قارچ های میکوریز تأثیر معنی‌داری بر صفات رشدی و جذب عناصر داشت. استفاده از قارچ های میکوریزی R. intraradices و F. mosseae اثرات منفی تنش کم‌آبی را کاهش داد و افزایش رشد و جذب بیشتر عناصر را به ‌دنبال داشت.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of water stress and mycorrhizal fungi Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae on uptake of some nutrients and growth properties in lentils

چکیده [English]

Background: water deficiency is one of the most limiting factors of agricultural production in arid and semiarid areas. In recent years beneficial microorganisms were evaluated as one of the techniquesto reduce the effects of drought stress and increase sustainable agricultural production. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on growth and uptake of some elements on lentil under drought stress conditions.
Materials and Methods: Experiment was performed as factorial test in a completely randomized design including two factors, drought stress at four levels (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% PAW) and mycorrhizal fungi at four levels (Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae, a mixture of two fungal species, and control), in growth chambers at Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Tehran University, 2014. After growth period, the effect of different treatments on growth traits such as number of nodules, shoot and root dry weights, number of sheaths, chlorophyll index, root colonization, plant height and content of elements of N, P, K, Fe, and Zn in the shoot were measured and recorded. Analysis of variance and mean comparison of data were performed with SAS software and Duncan’s test (p< 0.05) respectively.
Findings: The results showed that all measured plant traits due to the effect of water stress decreased, so that dry matter of shoot, root dry weight, number of sheaths, leaf chlorophyll index, root colonization and plant height at the highest level of stress S1 than the control NS, respectively 49.99, 41.12, 11.2, 24.4, 26.06, 28.09 and 22.15 percent reduced. The interaction of water stress and mycorrhizal fungi on all measured traits except for plant height, root dry weight, chlorophyll index, zinc, phosphorus and potassium was significant (p< 0.05). All the measured traits in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi were higher than the non-mycorrhizal plants. The highest number of pods, shoot dry weight and iron was obtained in the treatment of M1NS which compared to the control respectively 51, 36.07, 79.48 percent was higher. Most root colonization rate in treatment S3M2 to the 87.3 percent and lowest in treatment S1NM to the 8.25 percent were obtained respectively. Also Mycorrhizal fungi of R. intraradices, F. mosseae and mix of the two types respectively 89.2, 45.0, 33.7 percent increased the iron content in the shoot compared to the control.
Conclusion: Water stress had a negative impact on all indicators of growth, but the greatest reduction in root and shoot dry weight was seen. The use of mycorrhizal fungi had a significant effect on growth traits and nutrient uptake. The use of mycorrhizal fungi R. intraradices and F. mosseae reduced the negative effects of water stress and led to the increase of growth and more absorption of elements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Drought
  • Shoot dry weight
  • root colonization
  • Iron
  • Number of sheaths
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