تاثیر کاربرد کود دامی بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی چغندر قند (Beta vulgaris L.) رقم لاتی تیا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگا ارومیه

2 گروه علوم زراعی

3 PhD Student in Agroecology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: کاهش حاصلخیزی خاک در بسیاری از کشورهای در حال توسعه تحت تاثیر کشت‌های مستمر و تخلیه ذخایر غذایی خاک بدون جایگزینی مناسب باعث کاهش توان تولیدی خاک شده است. کاربرد مواد آلی باعث اصلاح ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیائی خاک و همچنین باعث افزایش عملکرد و بهبود کیفی گیاه زراعی در رسیدن به یک کشاورزی پایدار می شود. چغندر قند یکی از محصولات زراعی استراتژیک در منطقه آذربایجان‌غربی بوده و به صورت گسترده کشت می‌شود. بطوری که کاربرد کود آلی علاوه بر افزایش درصد ماده آلی، باعث کاهش وزن مخصوص ظاهری خاک، افزایش تشکیل خاکدانه‌ و همچنین افزایش جذب و نگهداری آب می‌شود. همچنین مصرف کود دامی در تغذیه ارگانیک و کاهش آلودگی‌های زیست محیطی در راستای نیل به کشاورزی پایدار ضروری است. لذا این مطالعه با هدف بررسی تاثیر کاربرد کود دامی بر برخی خصوصیات کمی و کیفی چغندرقند انجام شد.

مواد و روش‌ها: این تحقیق به صورت بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با شش سطح کود دامی شامل: صفر، 10، 20، 30، 40 و 50 تن در هکتار به صورت کرت‌های ثابت در چهار تکرار اجرا شد. ویژگی‌های فیزیکو شیمیایی خاک و کود آلی مورد مطالعه به روش استاندارد اندازه گیری شد. همچنین ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی چغندر قند شامل درصد قند ناخالص، درصد قند خالص، درصد قند ملاس، مقدار سدیم، پتاسیم و نیتروژن در ریشه، آلکالیته، ضریب استحصال شکر، عملکرد ریشه و عملکرد شکر ناخالص و شکر خالص اندازه گیری شد.

یافته‌ها: کود دامی مورد استفاده حاوی مقادیر قابل توجهی از مواد آلی و عناصر غذایی قابل استفاده برای گیاه بود. کاربرد مقادیر مختلف کود دامی بر تمامی صفات مورد بررسی به جز پتاسیم معنی‌دار بود. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد ریشه با مصرف 50 تن در هکتار کود دامی باعث افزایش معنی‌دار (98/31 درصد) نسبت به شاهد شد. درصد قند چغندر تحت تاثیر مصرف کود دامی کاهش یافت ولی کاهش آن با افزایش عملکرد ریشه جبران شد. همچنین کاربرد کود دامی باعث کاهش درصد ضریب استحصال شکر و آلکالیته ریشه چغندر قند گردید. مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که مصرف کود دامی سبب افزایش عملکرد شکر خالص شد به‌طوری که حداکثر عملکرد شکر (48/10 تن در هکتار) در تیمار 50 تن در هکتار و کمترین میزان آن (41/8 تن در هکتار) در تیمار شاهد مشاهده شد.

نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج حاصله، استفاده از کود دامی در سیستم کشاورزی پایدار، می‌تواند عملکرد ریشه را افزایش دهد. علی رغم اینکه درصد قند با افزایش مصرف کود دامی کاهش یافت ولی افزایش عملکرد ریشه، کاهش درصد قند را جبران کرد. بنایراین استفاده از کود دامی در سیستم کشاورزی ضمن حفظ حاصلخیزی خاک، از طریق کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی می‌تواند تولید پایدار محصول را به همراه داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Manure on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Cultivar Laetitia

نویسندگان [English]

  • behnam Doulati 1
  • Amir Rahimi 2
  • Saied Heydarzade 3
1 Department of Soil Science Faculty of Agriculture Urmia University Urmia, Iran
2 Assistance Professor of Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia,
3 PhD Student in Agroecology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia
چکیده [English]

The Effect of Manure on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cv. Laetitia

Abstract
Introduction: Declining Soil fertility in many developing countries, duo to continuous cropping systems and soil nutrient depletion without proper replacement has reduced soil production capacity. Organic matter improves the physical and chemical properties of soil, as well as increases the yield and the quality of the crops to achieve a sustainable agriculture. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops in the West Azerbaijan region and is widely cultivated. Therefore, application of organic fertilizer in addition to increasing organic matter reduces soil bulk density and improves aggregates forming as well as water holding capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of manure application on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sugar beet.

Materials and Methods: This research was carried out a randomized complete block design with six levels of manure application including 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with 4 replications. Physicochemical properties of soil (calcium carbonate equilibrium, pH, OC, EC, micro and macro elements, soil texture) and manure (micro and macronutrients, OC, pH, EC) was determined by standard methods. So, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sugar beet including total sugar content, pure sugar content, and molasses sugar content, Na, K and N content in root, alkalinity, sugar extraction coefficient, root yield and pure sugar and total sugar yield were determined in sugar beet samples.

Results: Studied manure contain significant amounts of organic matter and available nutrients for plant. Application of different amounts of manure on all parameters except potassium was significant. The results showed that application of 50 ton ha-1 of manure significantly (31.98%) increased root yield compared to control. The percentage of sugar decreased due to the manure application while increasing root yield compensate this reduction. In addition, application of manure caused reduction in sugar extract coefficient and alkalinity of beet root. Mean comparison showed that manure application increased net sugar yield. The highest (10.48 t ha-1) and lowest net sugar yield (8.41 t ha-1) were observed in 50 t ha-1 and control treatments, respectively.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, using manure in sustainable agricultural system can increase root yield. In spite of decreasing sugar percentage due to manure application, beet root yield significantly increased. Therefore, the use of manure in agricultural systems improve soil fertility and lead to sustainable production through declining fertilizer use.

Keywords: Sugar beet, manure, Root yield, Sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Sugar beet
  • Manure
  • root yield
  • Sustainable agriculture
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