اثر گونه‌های مختلف میکوریزا بر غلظت عناصر غذایی، عملکرد بوته و خاصیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی نعناع‌فلفلی تحت تنش‌شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد علوم خاک، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت.

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان.

3 دانشجو دکتری علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد.

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: شوری یکی از موانع و مشکلات کشت و توسعه در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک دنیا است. امروزه یکی از مشکلات اساسی در کشاورزی کمبود منابع آب شیرین و باکیفیت مناسب جهت آبیاری است. به‌طورکلی گیاهان، طیف وسیعی از تنش‌های محیطی را که نهایتاً منجر به بروز تنش اکسیداتیو در گیاه می‌شود، درک می‌کنند. مکانیسم مقاومت در برخی از تنش‌ها به‌صورت یک ارتباط درونی و نتیجه یک برنامه‌ریزی هماهنگ و پیچیده است. همزیستی قارچ میکوریزا می‌تواند منجر به افزایش رشد و مقاومت به تنش شود. با توجه به گسترش فرهنگ استفاده از گیاهان دارویی هم‌چنین گسترش وسعت اراضی شور برای استفاده بهینه از این اراضی، بررسی اثر شوری و چگونگی مقاومت نعناع فلفلی به آن الزامی است.
مواد و روش‌ها: به منظور بررسی اثر همزیستی گونه‌های مختلف قارچ میکوریزا بر عملکرد بوته، خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک و اسانس گیاهان دارویی نعناع فلفلی تحت تنش شوری، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط گلخانه‌ای انجام شد. سطوح شوری شامل: صفر، دو، چهار، شش و هشت دسی‌زیمنس بر متر و گونه‌های میکوریزا شامل Funneliformis mosseae و Rhizophagus irregularis و Glomus. versiform و تیمار شاهد (بدون میکوریزا) بودند. صفات اندازه گیری شده شامل عملکرد بوته، فنول کل، ظرفیت آنتی‌‌اکسیدانی و غلظت عناصر غذایی بودند.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد که همه صفات مورد مطالعه به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر اثر ساده و متقابل میکوریزا و تنش شوری قرار گرفت همچنین بیشترین میزان عملکرد بوته نعناع فلفلی و میزان عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در تیمار تلقیح با گونه Rhizophagus irregularis و شرایط بدون تنش و کمترین مقدار پارامترهای اندازه‌گیری شده در تیمار شاهد (بدون میکوریزا) و شرایط تنش شدید مشاهده گردید. بیشترین میزان اسانس در تیمار شوری شش و هشت دسی‌زیمنس بر متر با میکوریزا R. irregularis (با میانگین 18/4 و 42/4 درصد) و شوری هشت دسی زیمنس بر متر با میکوریزا G. versiform (با میانگین 22/4 درصد) به دست آمد و کمترین میزان اسانس در شوری صفر دسی زیمنس بر متر با تیمار خاک (بدون میکوریزا) (با میانگین 29/0 درصد) بود. تیمار تلقیح با گونه‌های F. mosseae و G. versiform نسبت به شاهد برتری داشته اما اثرات آن نسبت به تیمار تلقیح R. irregularis R. irregularis کمتر بود. میزان جذب عناصر در گیاهان میکوریزای بیشتر بود که منجر به افزایش عملکرد بوته گردید.
نتیجه گیری: میکوریزا از طریق همزیستی با گیاه و با گسترش میسیلیوم های خود در خاک، منجر به جذب بهتر فسفر از خاک توسط گیاه شد و در نتیجه باعث رشد و توسعه بهتر گیاه شده همچنین با افزایش جذب فسفر توسط گیاه، اثرات منفی تنش شوری را کاهش داد، همچنین در گیاهان میکوریزی غلظت پتاسیم نیز بیشتر از گیاهان غیر میکوریزی مشاهده شد و بدین ترتیب با افزایش نسبت پتاسیم به سدیم، همزیستی میکوریزی می‌تواند گیاه را در برابر اثرات منفی سدیم محافظت نماید. کاربرد هر سه گونه قارچ تأثیر بیشتری نسبت به عدم کاربرد روی کلیه صفات اندازه گیری نشان داد. نتایج این تحقیق حاکی از آن است که کاربرد کودهای زیستی در بهبود عملکرد بوته کمی و کیفی نعناع فلفلی تاثیر مثبتی داشته و به نظر می‏رسد کودهای زیستی جایگزین مناسبی برای کودهای شیمیایی درجهت پایداری تولید و حفظ محیط زیست باشند. همزیستی میکوریزایی در خاک‌های شور باعث افزایش مقاومت گیاه به شوری می‌گردد و میزان رشد و عملکرد بوته را در شرایط تنش بهبود می دهد..

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different mycorrhizal species inoculation on concentration of nutrient elements, yield per plant and antioxidant activity in Peppermint (Mentha piperita) under salt stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saideh Mohammadi 1
  • Naser Boroomand 2
  • Ecehagh Moghbeli 3
1 MSc Student of Soil Sciences,Jiroft Unvesity,Jiroft,Iran
2 Associate Prof, Dept.of Soil Sciences,Shahid Bahonar Unvesity,Kerman,Iran
3 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Salinity is one of obstacles of planting and developing in arid and semiarid regions in the world. Nowadays, one of the major problems in agriculture is the lack of access to fresh water with suitable quality for irrigation. Generally, plants can feel a wide range of environmental stresses which eventually lead to oxidative stress in plant. Mechanism of resistance to some of the stresses is as the internal connection and is the result of a coordinated and complex planning. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can lead to the improvement of growth and resistance to stress. Considering the development of the culture of using medicinal plants, as well as the expansion of salty soils, studying the effects of salinity on peppermint and mechanism of its resistance to salinity is necessary.
Materials and methods: To explore the effect of symbiosis of different types of mycorrhizal inoculation on yield, physiological characteristics and essential oil of peppermint medicinal plant under salt stress, an experiment was conducted in factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse. The salinity levels were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m and types of mycorrhizal included Glomus mosseae, G. intraradices, G. versiform and non-mycorrhizal. The traits measured were yield per plant, total phenol, antioxidant activity and concentration of nutrient.
Results: Results showed that all the characteristics studied were significantly affected by the main and interaction effects of mycorrhizal and salinity stress. Furthermore, the results showed that the highest and lowest amounts of yield per plant, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were observed in the treatment of inoculation with R. irregularis under non-stress conditions and the lowest amounts of the characteristics measured were observed in non-mycorrhizal treatment under stress conditions. The highest amount of essential oil was observed in the treatment of inoculation with R. irregularis under 6 and 8 dS/m salinity stress conditions (4.18 and 4.42 percent) and inoculation with G. versiform under 8 dS/m salinity stress condition (4.22 percent), and the lowest amount of essential oil was observed in non-mycorrhizal treatment under non-stress condition (0.29 percent). Treatments of inoculation with F. mosseae and G. versiform were superior to control conditions, but their effects were lower in comparison with the treatment of inoculation with G. intraradices. The concentration of nutrients in mycorrhizal plants was higher, causing an improvement in yield per plant.
Conclusion: Mycorrhizal fungus can decrease the effect of salinity stress through an increase in phosphorus uptake in plants. The results also showed that concentrations of potassium in mycorrhizal plants were higher than in non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, with increase in the ratio of potassium to sodium, mycorrhizal symbiosis can protect plants against negative effects of sodium. Results showed that use of bio-fertilizers can improve quantitative and qualitative yield in peppermint, and it seems that bio-fertilizers are a suitable alternative for chemical fertilizers for sustainability of the production and protection of the environment. Mycorrhizal symbiosis in salty soils caused an increase in plant resistance to salinity and improved growth and yield per plant under stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essential oil
  • Symbiosis
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • potassium
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