تأثیر سویه های باکتری Bacillus cereus بر جذب پتاسیم و آهن توسط یونجه از بسترهای حاوی موسکویت و فلوگوپیت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: ریزجانداران مفید خاک از عوامل بیولوژیک مهم جهت بهبود جذب عناصر غذایی ضروری توسط گیاه می‌باشند. ریزجانداران با مکانیسم‌های متعددی باعث آزادسازی عناصر غذایی از کانی‌های خاک می‌شوند. استفاده از باکتری‌های محرک رشدگیاه (PGPBs) جهت نیل به اهداف کشاورزی پایدار در دهه‌های اخیر افزایش چشمگیری یافته است. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثر دو سویه باکتری cereus Bacillus بر میزان جذب عناصر پتاسیم و آهن توسط یونجه از بسترهای حاوی کانی‌‌های میکایی (موسکویت و فلوگوپیت) انجام شد.
مواد و روش: آزمایش گلخانه‌ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل چهار سطح محلول غذایی (کامل، بدون آهن و پتاسیم، با آهن و بدون پتاسیم و بدون آهن و با پتاسیم)، نوع کانی‌های پتاسیم‌دار (فلوگوپیت و موسکویت) و سویه باکتری (PTCC 1247، PTCC 1665 و عدم تلقیح ) بود. گیاهان مورد مطالعه در طی دوره رشد با چهار نوع محلول غذایی آبیاری ‌شدند، 150 روز پس از کاشت، گیاهان برداشت و غلظت پتاسیم و آهن اندام هوایی و ریشه به ترتیب با دستگاه شعله‌سنج و جذب اتمی اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که حضور سویه‌های باکتری باعث افزایش وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه گیاهان و همچنین افزایش جذب پتاسیم و آهن در بسترهای مورد مطالعه شد. بیشترین مقدار جذب پتاسیم (66/352 میلی‌گرم در گلدان) شاخساره در گیاهان کشت شده در بسترهای حاوی فلوگوپیت و موسکویت و تغذیه شده با دو محلول غذایی کامل و دارای پتاسیم و بدون آهن مشاهده گردید. بیشنرین مقدار جذب پتاسیم ریشه (43/79 میلی‌گرم در گلدان) در بستر حاوی فلوگوپیت تلقیح شده با سویه PTCC 1247 و تغذیه شده با محلول غذایی با پتاسیم و بدون آهن مشاهده شد. میزان جذب آهن در ریشه‌ گیاهان به طور قابل توجهی بیشتر از اندام هوایی آنها بود. غلظت آهن در ریشه گیاهان کشت شده در بستر فلوگوپیت بالاتر از موسکویت بود. تلقیح گیاه با سویه‌های باکتری موجب افزایش میزان جذب آهن در ریشه‌های تلقیح شده نسبت به انواع فاقد تلقیح شد .نتایج بدست آمده نشان داد که میزان جذب آهن در گیاهان رشد یافته در بسترهای حاوی فلوگوپیت بیشتر از بسترهای حاوی مسکویت بود. مقدار جذب عناصر پتاسیم و آهن گیاهان کشت شده در بسترهای حاوی موسکویت با توجه به نوع تیمار محلول غذایی متغیر بود، بیشترین مقدار جذب پتاسیم و آهن برای گیاهان کشت شده در بسترهای حاوی مسکویت، در محلول غذایی کامل مشاهده گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری: حضور باکتری‌ها در ریزوسفر گیاهان می‌تواند باعث آزادسازی عناصر غذایی از کانی‌های خاک شده و در نتیجه موجب بهبود رشد و عملکرد گیاه می‌شود. همچنین استفاده بهینه از گونه‌های مفید باکتری می‌تواند باعت کاهش استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی در شرایط گلخانه‌ای ‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Bacillus cereus strains on potassium and iron uptake from substrates containing muscovite and phlogopite

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Soleimanzadeh 1
  • Hossein Khademi 2
1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences
2 Isfahan University of Technology
چکیده [English]

Effect of Bacillus cereus strains on potassium and iron uptake from substrates containing muscovite and phlogopite
Background and objectives: Beneficial soil microorganisms are important biological factors in improving take up micronutrient by plants. Microorganisms help the release of nutrients from soil minerals using different mechanisms. The use of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPBs) for sustainable agriculture has increased tremendously in the last decades. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two strains of Bacillus cereus on potassium and iron uptake by alfaalfa from substrates containing micaceous minerals (muscovite and phlogopite).
Materials and methods: The greenhouse experiment was achieved using a completely randomized design in factorial arrangement with three replications. The treatments included four levels of nutrient solution (complete, iron- and potassium-free, potassium-free, and iron- free), two types of potassium bearing minerals (phlogopite and muscovite), three bacterial treatments (PTCC 1247, and PTCC 1665 and non-inoculated). The studied plants which were irrigated with four nutrient solutions during the growing seasons were harvested after 150 days of planting and potassium and iron of the shoots and roots were measured by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrometery, respectively.
Results: The results showed that the presence of bacteria strains resulted in increased shoot and root dry weights, and also take up of potassium and iron from studied substrates. The highest uptake of shoot potassium observed in the plants Cultivated at substrates containing muscovite and phlogopite and Nutrition with two nutrient solutions, complete and iron free. The highest uptake of root potassium observed at substrate containing phlogopite inoculated with strain PTCC 1247 and nutrient with nutrient solution iron free. The uptake of iron in plant roots was several folds greater than the shoot. Iron concentration in the roots of growing plants in phlogopite substrate was higher than muscovite. Plant inoculation with bacterial strains resulted in increased iron uptake in inoculated roots compared to non-inoculated ones. The obtained results showed the content of iron concentration in growing plants in phlogopite substrates was greater than substrates containing muscovite. The uptake of potassium and iron was different Due to different treatment Nutrient solution. The highest uptake potassium and iron were observed for plants cultivated at substrates containing muscovite and Nutrient with Complete nutrient solution.
Conclusion:The presence of bacteria in plant rhizosphere could release nutrients from soil minerals and lead to improve growth and yield of plants. In conclusion, the optimal use of useful type of bacteria could decrease chemical fertilizer application under greenhouse conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Muscovite
  • phlogopite
  • potassium
  • Iron
  • Bacillus cereus
1.Adesemoye, A.O., and Kloeppe, J.W. 2009. Plant-microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizeruse
efficiency. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 85: 1-12.
2.Aloni, R., Aloni, E., Langhans, M., and Ulrich, C.I. 2006. Role of cytokinin and auxin in
shaping root architecture: regulating vascular differentiation, lateral root initiation, root
apical dominance and root gravitropism. Ann. Bot. 97: 883-893.
3.Araujo, F.F., Henning, A.A., and Hungria, M. 2005. Phytohormones and antibiotics produced
by Bacillus subtilis and their effects on seed pathogenic fungi and on soybean root
development. World J. Microb. Biot. 21: 1639-1645.
4.Badr, M. 2006. Efficiency of K-feldspar combined with organic materials and silicatedissolving
bacteria on tomato yield. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 2: 1191-1198.
5.Barbedo, J.G.A. 2013. Automatic object counting in neubauer chambers. In Embrapa
Informática Agropecuária-Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE), SIMPÓSIO
BRASILEIRO DE TELECOMUNICAÇÕES.
6.Barker, W.W.S., Welch, A., and Banfield, J.F. 1997. Biogeochemical weathering of silicate
minerals. Rev. Mine. Geochem. 35: 391-428.
7.Bar-Ness, E., Hadar, Y., Chen, Y., Romheld, V., and Marschner, H. 1992. Short-term effects
of rhizosphere microorganisms on Fe uptake from microbial siderophores by maize and oat.
Plant Physiol. 100: 451-456.
8.Benizri, E., Baudoin, E., and Guckert, A. 2001. Root colonization by inoculated plant growthpromoting
rhizobacteria. Biocontrol. Sci. Technol. 11: 557-574.
9.Bennett, P., Choi, W., and Rogera, J. 1998. Microbial destruction of feldspars. Mineral.
Manag. 8: 149-150.
10.Boer, S.D., and Copeman, R. 1974. Endophytic bacterial flora in Solanum tuberosum and its
significance in bacterial ring rot diagnosis. Can. J. Plant Sci. 54: 115-122.
11.Bowen, G., and Rovira, A. 1999. Therhizosphere and its management to improve plant
growth. Adv. Agron. 66: 1-102.
12.Buffle, J., and Chalmers, R.A. 1988. Complexation reactions in aquatic systems: an
Analytical Approach. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, U.K. Pp: 199-200, 216-258 and 296-299.
13.Calvaruso, C., Mareschal, L., Turpault, M.P., and Leclerc, E. 2009. Rapid clay weathering in
the rhizosphere of Norwayspruce and oak in an acid forest ecosystem. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.
73: 331-338.
14.Calvaruso, C., Turpault, M.P., and Frey-Klett, P. 2006. Root-associated bacteria contribute
to mineral weathering and to mineral nutrition in trees: a budgeting analysis. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 72: 1258-1266.
15.Dong, H. 2010. Mineral-microbe interactions: a review. Front. Earth Sci., China. 4: 127-147.
16.Dordipour, E., Farshadirad, A., and Arzanesh, M.H. 2010. Influence of Azospirillum
lipoferum and Azotobacterchrococoum on the release of soil potassium in pot culture of
soybean (Glycine max var. Williams). J. Agroecol. 2: 4. 593-599. (In Persian)
17.Figueiredo, M.D.V.B., Seldin, L., De Araujo, F.F., and Mariano, R.D.L.R. 2011. Plant
growth promoting rhizobacteria: fundamentals and applications. P 21-43, In: D.K.
Maheshwari (Ed.), Plant Growth and Health Promoting Bacteria. Springer, Berlin.
18.Gassman, K. 1995. The influence of moisture regime, organic matter and root-ecophysiology
on the availability and acquisition of potassium: implications for tropical lowland
rice. Proceedings of the Institute on Potassium in Asis. IPI Basel, Pp: 135-156.
19.Han, H., and Lee, K. 2005. Phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria effect on mineral
uptake, soil availability and growth of eggplant. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 1: 176-180.
20.Hinsinger, P., Elsass, F., Jaillard, B., and Robert, M. 1993. Rootinduced irreversible
transformation of a trioctahedral mica in the rhizosphere of rape. J. Soil Sci. 44: 535-545.
21.Hopf, J., Langenhorst, F., Pollok, K., Merten, D., and Kothe, E. 2009. Influence of
microorganisms on biotite dissolution: an experimental approach. Chemie. Der. Erde. 69: 45-56.
22.Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology. 2013. http://62.60.136.235/
persian/ptcc/mediumview.asp.
23.Khan, A.G. 2005. Role of soil microbes in the rhizospheres of plants growing on trace metal
contaminated soils in phytoremediation. J. Trace. Elem. Med. Biol. 18: 355-364.
24.Khayamim, F. 2009. Effect of plant type and endophyte fungus on plant ability to take up
potassium from some micaceous minerals and the possibility of their mineralogical changes.
Soil Sciences Master Thesis, college of agriculture, Isfahan university of Technology, 112p.
(In Persian)
25.Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H. 2007. Principles of Plant Nutrition .Isfahan University of
Technology Press. (In Persian)
26.Malakooti, M.J., and Tehrani, M.M. 2005. Effect of micronutrient on increase of yield and
improve the quality of agricultural crops. Tarbiat Modares University Press. (In Persian)
27.Marschner, P., Crowley, D., and Rengel, Z. 2011. Rhizosphere interactions between
microorganisms and plants govern iron and phosphorus acquisition along the rootaxis–model
and research methods. Soil Biol. Biochem. 43: 883-894.
28.Masalha, J., Kosegarten, H., Elmaci, O., and Mengel, K. 2000. The central role of microbial
activity for iron acquisition in maize and sunflower. Biol. Fertil. Soils. 30: 433-439.
29.Norouzi, S., and Khademi, H. 2010. Ability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to take up
potassium from different micaceous minerals and consequent vermiculitization. Plant Soil.
328: 83-93.
30.Sheng, X. 2005. Growth promotion and increased potassium uptake of cotton and rape by a
potassium releasing strain of Bacillus edaphicus. Soil Biol. Biochem. 37: 1918-1922.
31.Sheng, X.F., and He, L.Y. 2006. Solubilization of potassium-bearing minerals by a wild-type
strain of Bacillus edaphicus and its mutants and increased potassium uptake by wheat. Can.
J. Microbiol. 52: 66-72.
32.Shi, W., Wang, X., and Yan, W. 2004. Distribution patterns of available P and K in rape
rhizosphere in relation to genotypic difference. Plant Soil. 261: 11-16.
33.Snapp, S., Koide, R., and Lynch, J. 1995. Exploitation of localized phosphorus-patches by
commonbean roots. Plant Soil. 177: 211-218.
34.Song, S., and Huang, P. 1988. Dynamics of potassium release from potassium-bearing
minerals as influenced by oxalic and citric acids. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52: 383-390.
35.Sparks, D.L. 1987. Potassium dynamics in soils. Adv. Soil Sci. 6: 1-63.
36.Stegner, R. 2002. plant Nutrition Studies. Lamotte Company, Maryland, USA. 76p.
37.Styriakova, I., Bhatti, T.M., Bigham, J.M., Tyriak, I., Vuorinen, A., and Tuovinen, O.H.
2004. Weathering of phlogopite by Bacillus cereus and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.
Can. J. Microbiol. 50: 213-219.
38.Styriakova, I., Styriak, I., Nandakumar, M., and Mattiasson, B. 2003. Bacterial destruction of
mica during bioleaching of kaolin and quartz sandsby Bacillus cereus. W. J. Microb. Biot.
19: 583-590.
39.Štyriaková, I., Štyriak, I., and Oberhänsli, H. 2012. Rock weathering by indigenous
heterotrophic bacteria of Bacillus spp. at different temperature: a laboratory experiment.
Miner. Petrol. 105: 3-4. 135-144.
40.Thompson, M.L., Ukrainczyk, L., Dixon, J., and Schulze, D. 2002. Micas. P 431-466,
In: J.B. Dixon and D.G. Schulze (Eds.), Soil mineralogy with environmental applications.
Soil Sci. Sco. Am. Madison, WI.
41.Tyriaková, I., Bhatti, T.M., Bigham, J.M., tyriak, I., Vuorinen, A., and Tuovinen, O.H. 2004.
Weathering of phlogopite by Bacillus cereus and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Can. J.
Microbiol. 50: 3. 213-219.
42.Wallander, H.K. 2000. Uptake of P from apatite by Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonised by
different ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil. 218: 249-256.
43.Vessey, J.K. 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil.
255: 571-586.
44.Wiren, N.V., Römheld, V., Shioiri, T., and Marschner, H. 1995. Competition between
micro-organisms and roots of barley and sorghum for iron accumulated in the root apoplasm.
New Phytol. 130: 511-521.