اثر مدت‌زمان اجرای سامانه آبیاری قطره‏ای و پلی‏اکریل‏آمید بر آب‏گریزی خاک در باغ به

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش/ مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی اصفهان

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه شهرکرد

3 استاد دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

4 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه شهرکرد

5 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، کرج

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: آب‌گریزی و آب‌دوستی ویژگی‏های مهم فیزیکی هستند که تأثیر زیادی بر ویژگی‏های هیدرولیکی خاک دارند. از سوی دیگر ویژگی‏های هیدرولیکی خاک زیر قطره‏چکان‏ها بر ابعاد هندسی پیاز رطوبتی و پیامد آن رشد و عملکرد گیاه مؤثر است. آب‏گریزی خاک در اثر کاربرد روکنشگرها کاهش می‏یابد. تحقیقات محدودی بیانگر کاهش آب‏گریزی خاک در اثر کاربرد پلی‏اکریل‏آمید (PAM) است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی آب‏گریز شدن خاک تحت کاربرد درازمدت سامانه آبیاری قطره‏ای و تاثیر PAM بر افزایش آب‏دوستی خاک در باغ به انجام شد.
مواد و روش‏ها: این پژوهش به‌صورت طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در قالب کرت‏های خردشده با دو فاکتور مدت‌زمان اجرای سامانه قطره‏ای در سه سطح شاهد (بدون کشت)، 8 سال و 15 سال به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی و غلظت PAM در سه سطح غلظت‏های صفر، 10 و 20 میلی‏گرم بر لیتر به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی در سه تکرار انجام ‏شد. ابتدا غلظت‏های موردنظر PAM درون تانک‏های تزریق تهیه و در زمان آبیاری باغ، واحدهای آزمایشی به‌جز تیمار صفر با این محلول آبیاری گردید. پس از یک هفته نمونه خاک از سه عمق 30-0، 60-30 و 90-60 سانتی‏متری خاک زیر قطره‏چکان‏ها تهیه شد. تعیین شاخص آب‌گریزی (WRI) به روش جذب پذیری آب و اتانل و به کمک دستگاه میکرو نفوذسنج مکشی در آزمایشگاه انجام شد.
یافته‏ها: نتایج نشان داد اثر مدت‌زمان اجرای آبیاری قطره‏ای و کاربرد PAM بر WRI و زاویه تماس آب-خاک () معنی دار شد. سرعت جذب آب به خاک با افزایش دوره استفاده از سامانه آبیاری قطره‏ای کاهش یافت اما کاربرد PAM این کاهش را جبران نمود. بیشترین مقدار WRI برابر 321/4 مربوط به 15 سال اجرای سامانه قطره‏ای و بدون کاربرد PAM در عمق 30-0 سانتی‏متری بود. همچنین یافته‏ها نشان داد کمترین مقدار WRI برابر 833/0 مربوط به تیمار 20 میلی‏گرم در لیتر PAM بدون اجرای سامانه قطره‏ای در عمق 60-30 سانتی‏متری است که ازنظر آماری با تیمار 20 میلی‏گرم در لیتر PAM در مدت 8 سال اجرای سامانه قطره‏ای در همین عمق تفاوت معنی‏داری ندارد.
نتیجه‏‏گیری: نتایج نشان داد افزایش دوره زمانی سامانه آبیاری قطره‏ای به طور معنی داری باعث افزایش آبگریزی و زاویه تماس آب-خاک و کاهش جذب آب به ویژه در لایه 30-0 سانتی‏متری شد. کاربرد PAM به طور معنی داری آب گریزی و زاویه تماس آب-خاک را کاهش و جذب آب را افزایش داد. تر و خشک شدن متوالی در پیاز رطوبتی و افزایش مواد آلی خاک زیر قطره‏چکان‏ها می‏تواند آب‏گریزی خاک را در باغ افزایش دهد که با کاربرد 20 میلی‏گرم در لیتر PAM در سامانه آبیاری قطره‏ای به میزان قابل توجهی آب‏گریزی را کاهش می‏دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of long-term drip irrigation and polyacrylamide application on soil water repellency in the quince orchard garden

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masood Tadayonnejad 1
  • SHOJA GHORBANI DASHTAKI 2
  • MOHAMMAD REZA MOSADEGHI 3
  • JAHANGIR MOHAMMADI 4
  • MEHDI PANAHI 5
1 staff member of Isfahan Center of Agricultural Education & Research
2 2Associate prof., Dept. of Soil Science, University of Shahrekord
3 Professor, Dept. of Soil Science, Isfahan University of Technology
4 Professor, Dept. of Soil Science, University of Shahrekord
5 Assistant Prof. Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj
چکیده [English]

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Hydrophobic and wettability are important physical characteristics that have a great impact on soil hydraulic properties. On the other hand, hydraulic characteristics of the soil under the dripper are effective on the geometry wetting and subsequent plant growth and yield. Water repellency was reduced by surfactants. Little research showed that polyacrylamide (PAM) is reduces the soil water repellency. This study was conducted to investigate the PAM effects on variability of soil water repellency and wettability in drip irrigation system in quince orchard garden.
Materials and Methods: The experimental design was complete random block design in a split-plot form with "irrigation period of drip irrigation system" as main plots and PAM concentrations as subplots, with three replications. Main plots treatments consisted of control (uncultivated), 8 and 15 years old, and subplots treatments consisted of 0 (control), 10 and 20 mg l−1 PAM. Different concentrations of PAM were prepared inside an injection tank. At the irrigation time, experimental plots (except control) were irrigated with the PAM solutions where the water volume was similar for all orchard trees. A week after applying the PAM, the soil samples were taken from 0−30, 30−60 and 60−90 cm depths under the emitters. Water repellency index (WRI) was determined by a tension micro-infiltrometer according to intrinsic sorptivity method in the laboratory.
Results: Results showed that the effect of irrigation period of drip irrigation system and PAM on water repellency index and water-soil contact angle () were highly significant (p<0.01). The drip irrigation system severely decreased the water uptake rate but the application of PAM compensate for this loss. The maximum amount water repellency index was 4.321 in 15 years period of drip irrigation system without the use of PAM at 0-30 cm soil layer. Findings also showed the least amount of WRI was 0.833 in the concentration of 20 mg L-1 PAM without the drip irrigation system at 30-60 cm soil layer.
Conclusion: The results showed that the period of drip irrigation system significantly increases the water repellency and soil-water contact angle and decreases the water uptake, especially in 0-30 cm soil layer. The application of PAM significantly reduces soil water repellency and soil-water contact angle and increases water uptake. Wetting and drying and soil organic matter under the dripper can increase the soil hydrophobicity in the garden that application of 20 mg L-1 PAM in drip irrigation systems significantly reduces soil water repellency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Polyacrylamide
  • water repellency
  • water sorptivities
  • ethanol sorptivities
  • soil-water contact angle
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