اثر مصرف تلفیقی کود فسفر و لجن فاضلاب بر شاخص کلروفیل و برخی ویژگی‌های رشد آفتابگردان در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تبریز

2 موسسه تحقیقات، اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: تنش کم‌آبی به‌عنوان یکی از مهمترین عوامل محدود کننده تولید محصول در دنیا و ایران است. برای افزایش تحمل گیاهان به تنش کم‌آبی و کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی، تلفیق کودهای شیمیایی و آلی توصیه می‌شود. مطالعات مختلفی در مورد اثر فسفر و لجن فاضلاب بر عملکرد و ویژگی‌های کیفی محصولات زراعی مختلف در سطح دنیا انجام شده است ولی تاکنون در مورد مصرف توأم فسفر و لجن فاضلاب بر رشد آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) و تعیین مقدار بهینه این کودها برای شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و محدود گزارشی ارائه نشده است. لذا، پژوهش حاضر برای بررسی تأثیر سوپرفسفات تریپل و لجن فاضلاب بر شاخص کلروفیل و برخی ویژگی‌های رشد آفتابگردان روغنی در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و محدود در یک خاک لوم رسی انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش به‌صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار طی دو سال در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی شهرستان خوی و در شرایط مزرعه‌ای اجرا شد. عامل‌های آزمایش شامل سال در دو سطح (1393 و 1394)، زمان آبیاری در دو سطح (آبیاری پس از 60 و 150 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشت تبخیر کلاس A)، سوپرفسفات تریپل در سه سطح (صفر، 100 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و لجن فاضلاب در چهار سطح (صفر، 2/14، 4/28 و 7/56 تن ماده خشک در هکتار) بودند. تحلیل آماری داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار MSTATC و مقایسه میانگین‌ها با آزمون چند دامنه‌ای دانکن در سطح احتمال پنج درصد انجام شد.
یافته‌ها:‌‌ مطابق با نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب، اثر سال تنها بر شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد زیستی و ارتفاع گیاه معنی‌دار بود. تنش کم‌آبی سبب کاهش معنی‌دار شاخص کلروفیل برگ، شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد زیستی، ارتفاع بوته و قطر ساقه شد ولی مصرف سوپرفسفات تریپل و لجن فاضلاب تمامی ویژگی‌های اندازه‌گیری شده را به‌طور معنی‌داری نسبت به شاهد افزایش دادند. در هر دو شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و محدود، بیشترین شاخص کلروفیل برگ، شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد زیستی، ارتفاع بوته و قطر ساقه از تیمارهای تلفیقی به‌دست آمد که در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب به‌ترتیب 40، 141، 75، 26، 47 درصد و در شرایط آبیاری محدود 51، 95، 114، 36 و 60 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافتند.
نتیجه‌گیری: برای کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی و دستیابی به رشد مطلوب آفتابگردان، در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب مصرف تلفیقی 200 کیلوگرم سوپرفسفات تریپل+7/56 تن لجن فاضلاب در هکتار و در شرایط آبیاری محدود مصرف 100 کیلوگرم کود سوپرفسفات تریپل+7/56 تن لجن فاضلاب در هکتار در شرایط مشابه می‌تواند توصیه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of integrated application of phosphorus fertilizer and sewage sludge on leaf chlorophyll index and some growth characteristics of sunflower under water deficit conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nosratollah Najafi 1
  • Adel Reyhanitabar 1
  • Mehdi Ghaffari 2
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: Water deficit is one of the most important factors limiting crops production in the world and Iran. To increase the tolerance of plants to water deficit and reducing the consumption of chemical fertilizers, integrated application of organic and chemical fertilizers is recommended. Several studies have been done about the effects of phosphorus and sewage sludge on yield and quality of different crops at the world, but a report has not yet been presented about the effect of integrated application of phosphorus and sewage sludge on the growth of sunflower and determination of optimal amount of fertilizer under optimum and limited irrigation conditions. Therefore, the present study was conducted for evaluating the effect of triple superphosphate (TSP) and sewage sludge (SS) on leaf chlorophyll index (LCI) and some growth characteristics of oil sunflower under optimum and limited irrigation conditions in a clay loam soil.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out as a split-factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design for two years in Agricultural Research Station of Khoy under farm conditions. Experimental factors were included year at two levels (2014 and 2015), irrigation time at two levels (irrigation after 60 and 150 mm evaporation from pan class A), SS at four levels (0, 14.2, 28.4 and 56.7 t/ha) and TSP at three levels (0, 100, 200 kg/ha). Statistical analysis of the data using MSTATC software and means comparison were performed by the Duncan test at 5% probability level.
Results: According to the combined analysis of variances, the effect of year was significant only for plant height, BY and LAI. Water deficit decreased LCI, LAI, BY, plant height and stem diameter but application of TSP and SS increased all studied characteristics significantly compared to the control. In both optimum and limited irrigation conditions, the highest LCI, LAI, BY, plant height and stem diameter were obtained from integrated treatments which increased 40, 141, 75, 26 and 47 percent at optimum irrigation conditions and 51, 95, 114, 36 and 60 percent at limited irrigation conditions respectively compared to the control treatments.
Conclusion: In order to reducing the consumption of chemical fertilizers and achieving the optimum growth of sunflower, application of 200 kg TSP + 56.7 tons SS under optimum and 100 kg TSP + 56.7 ton of SS per hectare under limited irrigation is recommended at similar conditions.

Keywords: Chlorophyll, Integrated Plant Nutrition Management (IPNM), Sunflower, Water deficit

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chlorophyll
  • Integrated Plant Nutrition Management (IPNM)
  • Sunflower
  • Water deficit
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