تأثیر افزایش غلظت دی‏‌اکسید کربن اتمسفری و نیتروژن بر رشد و جذب عناصر غذایی در گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

4 استاد ، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: رشد جمعیت و افزایش فعالیت‌های صنعتی در دو قرن اخیر سبب افزایش قابل‌توجهی در غلظت CO2 اتمسفر شده است. بر اساس تحقیقات انجام ‌شده افزایش غلظت CO2 اتمسفری از شروع انقلاب صنعتی در اواسط قرن هجدهم تا به امروز همچنان ادامه دارد، به‌نحوی‌که غلظت CO2 از حدود 270 میلی‌گرم در لیتر قبل از انقلاب صنعتی به حدود 394 میلی‌گرم در لیتر در سال 2013 میلادی افزایش‌ یافته است. تأثیر غلظت‌ افزایش یافته CO2 بر جذب عناصر غذایی مانند نیتروژن، آهن، منگنز و روی در مورد بسیاری از محصولات مطالعه شده است. بهبود شرایط تغذیه‌ای ناشی از مصرف کودهای نیتروژنی و افزایش غلظت CO2 اتمسفری به دلیل افزایش فتوسنتز و تولید ماده خشک موجب افزایش رشد و عملکرد گیاهان زراعی مختلف و همچنین سبب تغییر غلظت بسیاری از عناصر غذایی ضروری گیاه می‌شود. پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی اثر افزایش غلظت CO2 و فراهمی نیتروژن خاک بر جذب عناصر غذایی در گیاه گندم انجام گردید.
مواد و روش‌ها: کشت گلخانه‌ای گندم به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی شامل فاکتور خاک در دو سطح (لوم‌رسی‌شنی و لوم‌شنی) و فاکتور نیتروژن در سه سطح (صفر، 100 و 200 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم از منبع اوره) و در دو سطح CO2 (400 و 850 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) در چهار تکرار انجام شد که جمعا در هر آزمایش 24 و در کل آزمایش 48 گلدان استفاده گردید. 60 روز پس از کشت گیاهان برداشت شدند و وزن خشک و میزان جذب نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، منیزیم، آهن، منگنز و روی بخش هوایی آن‌ها اندازه‌گیری گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد با افزایش غلظت CO2، در تیمار‏های مختلف کود نیتروژنی، وزن خشک بخش هوایی گندم به‌طور میانگین 67/10 درصد افزایش یافت. افزایش غلظت CO2 تاثیری بر جذب نیتروژن و منیزیم در بخش هوایی گندم نداشت ولی جذب فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن، منگنز و روی را به‌ترتیب 58/18، 72/20، 87/32، 66/24 و 36/22 درصد افزایش داد. با کاربرد کود نیتروژن جذب نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، منیزیم، آهن، منگنز و روی بخش هوایی گندم به‌ترتیب 337، 93، 96، 145، 135، 129 و 156 درصد افزایش یافت و این افزایش برای عناصر فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن، منگنز و روی در غلظت افزایش یافته CO2 شدیدتر بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: میزان مصرف کود‏های شیمیایی و به‏خصوص نیتروژن و برقراری تعادل تغذیه‏ای برای گیاه باید براساس شرایط اقلیمی تغییر یابد. با توجه به نتایج این آزمایش افزایش مقدار نیتروژن خاک منجر به تشدید اثرات مثبت افزایش غلظت دی‌اکسید کربن گردید. بنابراین درصورتی‌که محدودیتی از نظر تامین عناصر غذایی ضروری گیاه به خصوص نیتروژن وجود نداشته باشد، در شرایط افزایش غلظت CO2 اتمسفری، رشد گیاه گندم و جذب اکثر عناصر غذایی در بخش هوایی آن افزایش خواهد یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of increasing of atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen on growth and uptake of nutrient in wheat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Mirseyed Hosseini 1
  • Mansour Kouhestani 2
  • Arzhang Fathi Gerdelidani 3
  • Mohammadreza Bihamta 4
1 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Iran
2 MSc Gradaute, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Ph.D student, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Iran
4 Full Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Population growth and increased industrial activity in the last two centuries have led to a significant increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. According to research, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has been increasing constantly since the industrial revolution up to recent years. The concentration has increased from 270 mg/l before industrial revolution in the mid eighteen century to about 394 mg/l in 2013. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on uptake of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, iron, manganese, and zinc, on many agricultural crops have been studied. Improvement of nutritional conditions due to use of nitrogen fertilizers and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration initiating increased photosynthesis and dry matter production results in promoting growth and yield increase of agronomic crops. At the same time this would change the concentration of necessary nutrients in the plants. This research is conducted with aim of studying effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen availability on plant nutrient uptake in wheat.
Materials and methods: A greenhouse experiment in a factorial (combined) based on completely randomized design was conducted with soil texture in two levels (sandy clay loam and sandy loam), nitrogen in three levels (0, 100 and 200 mg/kg from urea source) in 4 replications of each treatment. Treatments were applied under two CO2 levels (ambient 400 and elevated 850 mg/l). A total of 24 pots in each CO2 level and 48 pots in total were used. Sixty days after planting, the aboveground parts were harvested and plant dry matter weight, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese and zinc in shoots were determined and compared.
Results: results showed that with increasing CO2 concentration, in different nitrogen treatments shoot dry weight of wheat increased on the average by 10.67 percent. Increase in CO2 concentration did not have significant on shoot nitrogen and magnesium uptake of wheat but increased phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by 18.58, 20.72, 32.87, 24.66, and 22.36 percent, respectively. Application of nitrogen fertilizer increased shoot uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc by 337, 93, 96, 145, 135, 129 and 156 percent, respectively, and this increase was more intense for phosphorus, potassium, iron and manganese in elevated CO2 concentration.
Conclusion: The amount of chemical fertilizers, especially nitrogen, and nutrient balance should be changed according to the weather conditions. Based on the results of this experiment, increasing soil nitrogen concentration resulted in an exacerbation of the positive effects of increasing CO2concentration. Therefore, if there is no limitation in the supply of essential nutrients, especially nitrogen, wheat growth and shoot uptake of most nutrients will increase under increased atmospheric CO2 concentration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate Change
  • CO2
  • Nutrient uptake
  • Soil nitrogen
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