بررسی تشکیل و تکامل خاک‌ها در یک ردیف پستی و بلندی در منطقه چلگرد استان چهارمحال و بختیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو

2 بخش علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز

3 دانشگاه شهرکرد

4 هیئت علمی

5 دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

6 هیات علمی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: استفاده مطلوب و پایدار از خاک در صورتی امکان‌پذیر است که شناخت صحیح و کامل از ویژگی‌های آن انجام گیرد. اهداف این مطالعه افزایش اطلاعات در مورد خاک‌های موجود در منطقه‌ای در 35 کیلومتری چلگرد واقع در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری از طریق بررسی ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیکی، فیزیکوشیمیایی، کانی‌شناسی و میکرومورفولوژیکی برای بررسی نحوه تشکیل و طبقه‌بندی این خاک‌ها طبق دو سامانه رده‌بندی آمریکایی و جهانی است.

مواد و روش‌ها: میانگین بارندگی و درجه حرارت سالیانه منطقه مورد مطالعه به ترتیب 6/1389 میلی‌متر و 5/9 درجه سانتی‌گراد و رژیم حرارتی و رطوبتی آن به ترتیب مزیک و زریک می‌باشند. 8 خاکرخ در طول یک ترانسکت در جهت شیب، حفر و نمونه‌برداری شدند. آزمایشات شامل واکنش خاک، بافت، ضریب انبساط خطی، هدایت الکتریکی، کربنات کلسیم معادل، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی و کربن آلی و آنالیزهای کانی‌شناختی و میکرومورفولوژی بر روی نمونه‌های خاک انجام گردید. سپس، بر اساس کارت تشریح هر پروفیل و نتایج آزمایشگاهی، طبق کلید تاکسونومی خاک، تا سطح فامیل و با استفاده از سامانه طبقه‌بندی جهانی نیز خاک‌ها در سطح دوم طبقه‌بندی شدند.

یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که راسته‌ خاک‌های منطقه در سامانه آمریکایی، اینسپتی‌سول و ورتی‌سول بودند در حالی‌که در سامانه جهانی، در گروه‌های مرجع کلسی‌سول، کمبی سول و ورتی سول نام‌گذاری شد. نتایج بیانگر این بود که به خاطر وجود ماده آلی بیشتر و بافت ریزتر در موقعیت‌های پایین‌تر شیب، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی در این موقعیت حداکثر بود. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش عمق خاک، مقدار کربن آلی و ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی خاک کاهش یافته در حالیکه مقدار رس و آهک روند معکوس داشته و با افزایش عمق خاک، افزایش یافتند. مقدار ضریب انبساط خطی نیز همانند مقدار رس از شیب پشتی به طرف پای شیب و همچنین از سطح به طرف عمق پروفیل افزایش یافت. خاک‌های منطقه غالبا دارای کانی‌ رسی اسمکتیت همراه مقادیری از کانی‌های ایلیت، کلریت، کائولینیت، کوارتز و کانی مختلط ایلیت- اسمکتیت بودند. طبق نتایج، منشا کانی‌ها در موقعیت‌های مختلف شیب، توارثی است. بررسی مقاطع نازک، نشان‌دهنده وجود پوشش‌های رسی در افق‌های Bt و Btk می‌باشد که این پوشش‌های رسی در خاک، شواهدی از انتقال رس از افق‌های بالایی به افق‌های تحتانی در نتیجه‌ی نفوذ آب هستند. هم‌چنین، تجمع آهک به فرم‌های متنوع از جمله پوشش، پرشدگی، آهک سوزنی و نادول آهکی در افق‌های Bk و Btk مشاهده گردید که موید ثانویه بودن آهک می‌باشد و باعث ایجاد بی‌فابریک از نوع کلسیت کریستالیتیک شده است. علت تجمع آهک به فرم سوزنی شکل در راس شیب احتمالا به‌خاطر مرتفع بودن منطقه، وجود رطوبت کافی در خاک، پایین بودن شوری خاک و حضور مواد آلی تجزیه‌پذیر است.

نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این پژوهش نمایانگر نقش پستی و بلندی در تغییر پذیری ویژگی‌های خاک‌ و رده‌بندی آن در منطقه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying of the Formation and Development of Soils in a Toposequence in Chelgerd Region, Chaharmahal-va- Bakhtiari Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • sepideh etedali dehkordi 1
  • Seyed Ali Abtahi 2
  • Mohamadhasan Salehi 3
  • Javad Givi 4
  • Mohamadhadi Farpoor 5
  • majid baghernejad 6
4 Associate professor
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives:The optimum and sustainable use of soil is possible only with correct and complete understanding of its properties. The objectives of the this study were to enhance understanding of soils available in an area located on 35 km of Chelgerd region in Chaharmahal –va- Bakhtiari province through the study of the Soil morphological, physico-chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characteristics to check the formation and classification of these soils according to USDA Soil Taxonomy (2014) and WRB (2014) systems.

Materials and Methods:Mean annual rainfall and soil temperature of the selected location are 1389.6 mm and 9.5 ℃ respectively and Soil temperature and moisture regimes of this region are mesic and xeric, respectively. Eight pedons located on one transect along slope direction were excavated and sampled. Routine physico-chemical analysis such as soil reaction, texture, COLE content, electrical conductivity, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon and clay mineralogy and micromorphology investigations were performed on selected soil samples. Then, based on description card of each profile and laboratory results, soils were classified to phamily level and to second level based on Taxonomy and WRB systems, respectively.

Results:the results showed that the category of the soils of the area according Taxonomy system, are Inceptisols and Vertisols, while in WRB system, named Calcisols, Cambisols and Vertisols. The results showed that, because of higher organic matter content and finer texture of soils of lower slope positions, cation exchange capacity was maximum in this position. The results also revealed that, with increasing soil depth, organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity decreased, whereas clay and lime content had a reverse trend and increased with increasing the soil depth. Coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE) values as well as clay content increased from back slope to foot slope and with increasing soil depth. They are constituted mainly by smectites associated to some amount of illite, chlorite, kaolinite, quartz and illite- smectite as mixed minerals. According to this results, the origin of the clay minerals in different slope positions are mostly inheritance from parent material. Study of thin section revealed the presence of clay coating in the Bt and Btk horizons, that, this clay coatings in the soil are evidence of transmission clay from upper horizons to lower horizons as a result of water penetration. Also, calcite accumulation with various forms such as calcite coating, calcite infilling and calcite needle and calcite nodule in the Bk and Btk were observed, which, confirms the secondary nature of lime and causing calcitic crystalitic b-fabric. Also, the cause is the accumulation of calcite needle in the top of the slope due to highlands area, presence of enough moisture in the soil, the low salinity of soil and presence of biodegradable organic matter.

Conclusion: the result of this study showed the role of topography on variability of soil properties and soil classification in the studied area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Chelgerd region"
  • "Clay mineralogy"
  • "Physico-chemical properties"
  • "Soil classification"
  • "Topography"
1.Abtahi, A. 1992. Salinity tolerance in plants. College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, 160p.
(In Persian)
2.Ahmadi Ilkhchi, A., Hajabbasi, M.A., and Jalalian, A. 2003. Effects of converting range to
dry-farming land on runoff and soil loss and quality in Dorahan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari
province. J. Agri. Sci. Natur. Resour. 4: 103-114. (In Persian)
3.Ajami, M., and Khormali, F. 2009. Clay mineralogy as an evidence of land degradation on
loess hillslopes. J. Water Soil Conserv. 16: 2. 61-84. (In Persian)
4.Akef, M., Mahmoudi, Sh., Karimian Eghbal, M., and Sarmadian, F. 2004. Physicochemical
and micromorphological changes in paddy soils converted from forest in Foomanat region,
Gilan. J. Naturalrest. 56: 4. 407-423. (In Persian)
5.Azinwi, P.T. 2012. Petrological, physic-chemical and mechanical study of the benue
watershed vertisols (Nord Cameroon): spatial analysis and agricultural potential evaluation.
Th. Doc. Ph.D. Fac. Sc. Univ. Yaounde I, 183p.
6.Bahmani, M., Salehi, M.H., and Esfandiarpoor Boroujeni, I. 2014. Comparing the American
soil classification system (Taxonomy) and WRB to describing the feature, of some arid and
semi-arid central Iran. J. Water Soil Sci. (Sci. Technol. Agric. Natur. Resour.). 18: 67. 11-21.
7.Bartoli, F., Burtin, G., Royer, JJ., Gury, M., Gomendy, V., Leviandier, R., and Gafrej, R.
1995. Spatial variability of topsoil characteristics within silty soil type, effect on clay
migration. Geoderma. 68: 279-300.
8.Bayat, A., Karimzadeh, H.R., and Khademi, H. 2011. Clay minerals in the soil of the old East
geomorphic surfaces in Esfahan, Iran. J. Crystalograph. Mineral. 1: 1. 45-58. (In Persian)
9.Brady, N.C., and Weil, R.R. 1999. The nature and properties of soils (12th Edition), Prentice-
Hall, 881p.
10.Buol, S.W., Hole, F.D., and MC Cracken, R.J. 1973. Soil genesis and classification, The
Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 360p.
11.Cline, M.G. 1949. Basic principles of soil classification. Soil Sci. 67: 2. 81-91.
12.Dahlgren, A.R., Bottinger, L.T., Huntington, L.G., and Amundson, A.R. 1997. Soil
development along an elevation transect in the western Sierra Nevada, California.
Geoderma. 78: 207-236.
13.Deckers, J.P., Driessen, F.O.F., Nachtergaele, O., and Berding, F. 2003. Anticipated
developments of the world refrence base for soil resources. In: H. Eswaran, T. Rice, R.
Ahrens and B.A. Stewart (Eds.), Soil Classification: A Global Desk Reference. CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL. 232p.
14.Djoufac, W.E., Elimbi, A., Panczer, G., Nyada, R., and Njopwouo, D. 2006. Caracterisations
phisico-chimiques et mineralogiques des vertisols de Garoua (Nord Cameroun). Ann. Chim.
Sci. Mat. 31: 1. 75-90.
15.Farpoor, M.H., Neyestani, M., Eghbal, M.K., and Esfandiarpour Boroujeni, I. 2012.
Soil-geomorphology relationships in Sirjan playa, south central Iran. Geomorphology.
138: 223-230.
16.Fisher, R.F., and Brinkley, D. 2000. Ecology and management of forest soils, John Wiley &
Sons, 489p.
17.Food and Agriculture Organization. 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources.
A framework for international classification, correlation and communication, FAO, Rome,
128p.
18.Fooladmand, H.R. 2008. Estimation of cation exchange capacity from some soil physicochemical
properties. J. Agric. Sci. Natur. Resour. 15: 10. 1-8. (In Persian)
19.Gee, G.W., and Bauder, J.W. 1986. Particle size analysis, hydrometer method. P 404-408, In:
D.L. Sparks (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. 3rd ed. Am. Soc. Argon., Madison, WI.
20.Gerasimova, M.I. 2010. Chinese soil taxonomy: between the American and the international
classification systems. Eurasian Soil Sci. 43: 945-949.
21.Habibi, A., Jalalian, A., and Ayoubi, Sh. 2011. The formation and evolution of soil Vertisols
and its relationship with the topography on Lordegan country in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari.
M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan Branch, 112p.
(In Persian)
22.Jafari, A., Shariatmadari, H., Khademi, H., and Rezaei Nezhad, Y. 2008. Clay mineralogy of
soils in arid and semiarid regions of the four tiers of territorial and its relationship with
kinetics of Phosphorus Release. J. Agri. Sci. Natur. Resour. 44: 153-168. (In Persian)
23.Jiang, P., and Thelen, K.D. 2004. Effect of soil and topographic properties on crop yield in a
north-central corn-soybean cropping system. Agronomy. 96: 252-258.
24.Karimi Dehkordi, F., Jalalian, A., Mehnatkesh A.M., and Honarjoo, N. 2014. The effect of
land use change on mineralogy and micro-morphological properties of clay soil on Lordegan
County- in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province. J. Soil Manage. Sust. Prod. 4: 3. 1-32.
(In Persian with English abstract)
25.Kemp, R.A., and Zarate, M.A. 2000. Pliocene pedosedimentary cycles in the southern
Pampas, Argentina. Sedimentology. 47: 3-14.
26.Kemp, R.A., Tomas, P.S., Sayago, J.M., Debyshire, E., King, M., and Wagner, L. 2003.
Micromorphology OSL dating of the basalt part of the loess-paleosol sequence at La Mesuda
in Tucuman province, northwest Argentina. Quat. Int. 106-107: 111-117.
27.Khormali, F., and Abtahi, A. 2003. Origin and distribution of clay minerals in calcareous
arid and semi-arid soils of Fars Province, Southern Iran. Clay MINERALS. 38: 511-527.
(In Persian with English abstract)
28.Khormali, F., Abtahi, A., Mahmoodi, S., and Stoops, G. 2003. Argillic horizon development
in calcareous soils of arid and semi-arid regions of Southern Iran. Catena. 776: 1-29.
29.Khormali, F., Abtahi, A., and Stoops, G. 2006. Micromorphology of calcic pedofeatures in
highly calcareous soils of Fars province, Southern Iran. Geoderma. 132: 31-46.
30.Khormali, F., and Shamsi, S. 2009. Investigation of the quality and micromorphology of soil
evaluation in different landuses of the quality of Golestan province, Acase study in Ghapon
region. J. Agri. Sci. Natur. Resour. 16: 3. 14-27. (In Persian)
31.Kittrick, J.A., and Hope, E.W. 1963. Aprocedure for the particle size separation of soils for
X-ray diffraction analysis. J. Soil Sci. 96: 312-325.
32.Kodesova, R., Kodes, V., Zigova, A., and Simanek, J. 2006. Impact of plant roots and
soil organisms on micromorphology and soil hydraulic properties. Biologia, Bratislava.
61: 19. 339-343.
33.Liaghat, M., and Khormali, F. 2011. Micromorphology of development of some
loess-derived soils of western Golestan province a long a climo-topobiosequence. J. Water
Soil Conserv. 18: 1. 1-32. (In Persian)
34.Lindsay, W.L. 1992. Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 44p.
35.McNab, W.H. 1993. Atopographic index to quantify the effect of mesoscale landform on site
productivity. Can. J. For. Res. 23: 1100-1107.
36.Moges, M., and Holden, N.M. 2008. Soil fertility in relation to slope position and
agricultural land use: A case study of Umbulo catchments in southern Ethiopia.
Environmental Management. 42: 753-763.
37.Mohajeri, P., Alamdari, P., and Golchin, A. 2016. Effect of slope positions on
physiochemical properties of soils located on a toposequence in Deilaman area of Guilan
province. J. Water Soil. 30: 1. 162-171. (In Persian)
38.Morand, D.T. 2010. The world reference base for soils (WRB) and soil Taxonomy: an initial
appraisal of their application to the soils of the Northern Rivers of New South Wales. 19th
World Congress of Soil Science. Australia, Pp: 28-31.
39.Mousavi, M.H., Mehdizadeh Shahri, H., and Ghorbani H. 2009. Mineralogy of soils formed
on Aghajary formation in Masjed Soleyman and Burge Khajoo province. J. Sci. Islamic
Azad University (JSIRU). 77: 151-172. (In Persian)
40.Muir, J.W. 1962. The general principles of classification with reference to soils. J. Soil Sci.
13: 1. 22-30.
41.National Soil Survey Center. 2002. Field book for describing and sampling soils. Natural
Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Version 2. 228p.
42.Nelson, S.R., and Sommers, L.E. 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. P
961-1010, In: D.L. Sparks (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. 3rd ed. Am. Soc. Argon.,
Madison, WI.
43.Ramazanpour, H., and Bakhshipour, R. 2003. Evidence of soil clay minerals transformation
in some physiographic units, west of Langrood-Gilan. Iran. J. Crystalograph. Mineral.
11: 1. 45-56. (In Persian)
44.Ramazanpour, H., and Jalalian, A. 2002. Soil variability along a chrono toposequence in two
climatic zones of Central Zagros. JWSS-Isfahan University of Technology. 6: 1. 131-147.
(In Persian)
45.Rezaei, S., and Gilkes, R. 2005. The effects of landscape attributes and plant community on
soil physical properties in rangelands. Geoderma. 125: 167-176.
46.Salehi, M.H., and Karimi Karuye, A.R. 2009. Comparison of soil classification dominant
province of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari and Isfahan. J. Natur. Resour. Agric. Sci. University
of Isfahan. 1: 1-4. (In Persian)
47.Sanjari, S., Farpoor, M.H., Karimian Eghbal, M., and Esfandiarpoor Boroujeni, I. 2011.
Genesis, micromorphology and clay mineralogy of soils located on different geomorphic
surfaces in Jiroft area. J. Water Soil. 30: 2. 411-425. (In Persian with English abstract)
48.Sarshogh, M., Salehi, M.H., and Beigie, H. 2012. The effect of slope aspect and position on
soils particle size distributionin Chelgerd region, Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari province.
J. Agric. Sci. Natur. Resour. 19: 3. 77-98. (In Persian)
49.Sarshogh, M., Salehi, M.H., and Esfandiarpoor Borojeni, I. 2011. Comparing the American
soil classification system (Taxonomy) and WRB in various situations both northern and
southern slope in Chelgerd region, Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari province. 12th Iranian Soil
Science Congress, 4p. (In Persian)
50.Schafer, W.M., and Singer, M.J. 1976. A new method of measuring shrink-swell potential
using soil pastes. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 40: 805-806.
51.Secu, C.V., Patriche, C., and Vasiliniuc, I. 2008. Aspects regarding the correlation of the
Romanian soil taxonomy system (2003) with WRB (2006). IPYHTO3HABCTBO. 9: 56-62.
52.Soil Survey Staff. 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. United States Department of Agriculture
and Natural Resources Conservation Service, 332p.
53.Stoops, G. 2003. Guidelines for the analysis and description of soil and regolith thin sections.
SSSA. Madison, WI, 170p.
54.Temga, J.P. 2008. Etude des vertisols topomorphes sur alluvions de la zone soudanosahelienne
de IExtreme- Nord Cameron. Mem. DEA. Univ. Yaounde I, 61p.
55.Thomas, G.W. 1996. Soil pH and soil acidity. P 475-490, In: D.L. Sparks (Eds.), Methods of
soil analysis. Part 3. 3rd ed. Am. Soc. Argon., Madison, WI.
56.Tsui, C.C., Chen, Z.S., and Hsieh, C.F. 2004. Relationships between soil properties and
slope position in a lowland rain forest of southern Taiwan. Geoderma. 123: 131-142.
57.Vahidi, M.J., Jafarzadeh, A.A., Ostan, S.H., and Shahbazi, F. 2010. Impact of land use on
physical, chemical and mineralogical soil southern city of Ahar. J. Soil Water. 77: 33-47.
(In Persian)
58.Verhey, W., and Stoops, G. 1973. Micromorphological evidence for identification of an
argillic horizon in Terra Rossasoils. P 817-831, In: G.K. Rutherford (Ed.), Soil Microscopy.
The limestone Press. Kingston. Canada.
59.Walkley, A., and Black, I.A. 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining
soil organic matter and a proposed modification of chromic acid method in soil analysis. 1.
Experimental. Soil Science. 79: 459-465.
60.Wilding, L.P., Smeck, N.E., and Hall, G.F. 1983. Pedogenesis and Soil Taxonomy. Concepts
and interactions. Elsevier Publishing Company, 303p.
61.Yimer, F., Ledin, S., and Abdelkheir, A. 2006. Soil property variations in relation to
topographic aspect and vegetation community in the south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia.
Forest Ecology and Management. 232: 90-99.
62.Ziyaee, A., Pashaei, A., Khormali, F., and Roshani, M.R. 2013. Some physic-chemical, clay
mineralogical and micromorphological characteristics of loess paleosols sequence indicators
of climate change in south of Gorgan. J. Water Soil Cons. 20: 1. 1-28. (In Persian)