اثر سطوح مختلف روی خاک در رشد و انباشتگی این فلز در خردل اتیوپی (Brassica carinata) و خردل هندی (Brassica juncea) با تاکید بر گیاه‌پالایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه گلستان

2 هیات علمی دانشگاه گلستان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: همگام با رشد روزافزون صنعت و فنآوری، ورود آلاینده‌های زیست محیطی و در صدر آن‌ها فلزات سنگین به خاک، موجب نگرانی جامعه جهانی پیرامون خطرات احتمالی آلودگی منابع خاک در جهان شده است. روی یکی از فلزات سنگین ضروری در همه گیاهان عالی است که در بسیاری از اعمال زیستی نقش دارد، ولی در غلظت‌های بالا می‌تواند علاوه بر اثرات منفی در رشد و نمو گیاهان، سبب به خطر انداختن سلامت انسان و بقیه موجودات زنده مصرف کننده گردد. این تحقیق میزان تحمل، انباشتگی و توان گیاه‌پالایی دو گونه خردل اتیوپی (Brassica carinata) و خردل هندی (Brassica juncea) رشد‌ یافته در خاک آلوده شده به غلظت‌های مختلف روی را مورد مطالعه قرار داد.
مواد و رو‌ش‌ها: گیاهان در خاک‌های آلوده شده با غلظت‌های ۵۰۰ و ۱۰۰۰ میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم روی در گلخانه رشد یافتند. آزمایش در طرح کاملاً تصادفی و به‌صورت فاکتوریل انجام شد. فاکتور اول سطوح روی و فاکتور دوم گونه‌های گیاهی بود. گیاهان پس از ۷ هفته کشت در آغاز فاز زایش، جهت سنجش برخی خصوصیات رشدی، غلظت روی و مقدار رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی برداشت شدند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج مطالعه نشان داد که به‌جزء کاهش طول ریشه تحت تیمار ۱۰۰۰ میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم روی در خردل اتیوپی، تیما‌رهای روی بر بقیه صفات رشد هر دو گیاه اثر معنی‌داری نداشتند. هر دو گیاه شاخص تحمل تنش بالایی را نسبت به روی نشان دادند. با افزایش آلودگی روی در خاک، غلظت این فلز در ریشه و بخش هوایی هر دو گیاه به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. بیشترین میزان تغلیظ زیستی ریشه و بخش هوایی و فاکتور انتقال در تیمار ۵۰۰ میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم روی در هر دو گیاه مشاهده شد. در خردل اتیوپی تیمار ۱۰۰۰ میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم روی منجر به کاهش کلروفیل a و نسبت کلروفیل کل به کاروتنوئید گردید، ولی تیما‌رهای روی اثر معنی‌داری در میزان رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی گیاه خردل هندی نداشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: در سطوح مختلف آلودگی روی، هر دو گونه قادر به تحمل و تجمع روی بودند، به‌طوری‌‌که در هر دو گونه با افزایش میزان آلودگی روی در خاک شاخص تحمل تنش افزایش یافت. بیشترین میزان تغلیظ زیستی و فاکتور انتقال هر دو گیاه تحت تیمار ۵۰۰ میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم روی اتفاق افتاد. تحت تیمار ۱۰۰۰ میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم روی، خردل هندی توانست در بخش هوایی حدود 05/0 درصد روی انباشته نماید که 5/1برابر بیشتر از خردل اتیوپی بود. لذا، گیاه خردل هندی نسبت به خردل اتیوپی دارای عملکرد بهتری جهت استفاده در فرایند گیاه‌پالایی روی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impacts of different soil zinc levels on growth and Zn accumulation in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) with emphasis on phytoremediation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Soleimannejad 1
  • ahmad abdolzadeh 1
  • Hamed Raza Sadeghipour 2
1 Golestan University
2 Golestan University
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: The current development of industry and technology has been associated with the entry of environmental pollutants and particularly heavy metals into the soil, and accordingly it raised the safety concerns of the international community. Zinc is an essential heavy metal in plants which involves in many biological functions, but at high concentrations inhibits plants growth and development and may endanger the health of human and other organisms in case of plant consumption. It can play catalytic, cocatalytic (coactive), or structural roles in a large number of enzymes and is involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. In this research the tolerance of Ethiopian and Indian mustards grown in soils contaminated with different Zn concentrations and the accumulation of this element in these plants were investigated to assess their phytoremediation potentials.
Materials and Methods: Plants were grown in greenhouse in soils contaminated with 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 of zinc. The experiment was carried out in a factorial completely randomized design. Factor one was Zn and factor two was plant species.They were harvested after 7 weeks of growth at the beginning of the reproductive phase and assayed for growth characteristics and Zn concentration and photosynthetic pigments content.
Results: The results showed that Zn treatments had no significant effect on growth parameters of both species except decrease in root length of Ethiopian mustard under 1000 mg kg-1 Zn. Both specices indicated great stress tolerance index to zinc. As soil zinc contamination increased, the concentration of Zn increased significantly in roots and shoots of both Ethiopian and Indian mustards. The greatest bioconcentration factor in root and shoot and translocation factor in both plants were observed under 500 mg kg-1 Zn treatment. In Ethiopian mustard, 1000 mg kg-1 Zn treatment reduced chlorophyll a and the ratio of total chlorophyll to carotenoids, however, Zn treatments did not affect significantly the photosynthetic pigments in Indian mustard.
Conclusion: Both species are able to tolerate and accumulate Zn under different Zn contamination levels, thus in both species increased soil Zn contamination led to increased stress tolerance index. The highest bioconcentration and translocation factors in both plants occurred under 500 mg kg-1 Zn. Under 1000 mg kg-1 Zn, Indian mustard accumulated 0.05 % Zn in shoots which was greater 1.5 fold than Ethiopian mustard. Accordingly, Inadian mustard has greater competence for phytoremediation of Zn contaminated soils compared to Ethiopian mustard.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil contamination
  • Zinc
  • Brassicaceae
  • tolerance
  • Phytoremediation
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