تأثیر جهت و فاصله از کارخانه پرهام‌روی زنجان بر غلظت و فاکتور انتقال روی در ورک و سلمه‌تره

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 زنجان

2 دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

چچکیده
سابقه و هدف: آلودگی خاک و گیاه به عناصر سنگین مانند روی در اثر فعالیت‌های صنعتی بر سلامت انسان‌ها آثار سوء داشته است. کارخانجات صنعتی و معادن، کودها، سموم، فاضلاب‌ها از مهم‌ترین منابع آلاینده آب، خاک و گیاهان به فلزات سنگین به شمار می‌آیند. استان زنجان دارای کارخانه‌های تولید روی و فعالیت‌های معدن‌کاوی زیادی بوده که باعث آلودگی خاک، آب وگیاهان شده است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر جهت و فاصله از کارخانه پرهام‌روی زنجان بر غلظت روی در خاک، ریشه و بخش‌هوایی و فاکتور انتقال روی در گیاهان مرتعی غالب منطقه (سلمه‌تره و ورک) اندازه‌گیری شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گردید. فاکتورها‌ شامل 3 جهت (شمال‌ شرق، شرق و غرب کارخانه)، 6 فاصله (250-0، 500-250، 750-500، 1000-750، 1250-1000 و 1500-1250 متری از کارخانه) و دو گیاه سلمه‌تره (Chenopodium album) و ورک (Hulthemia persica) بود. نمونه‌های گیاه و خاک از مناطق مورد نظر جمع‌آوری شد. نمونه‌های ریشه و بخش‌هوایی گیاه با استفاده از اسید نیتریک غلیظ هضم و روی قابل دسترس خاک با DTPA استخراج گردید. غلظت روی نمونه‌ها با استفاده از دستگاه جذب‌اتمی اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که اثر جهت و فاصله از کارخانه بر غلظت عنصر روی در بخش‌هوایی و ریشه و فاکتور انتقال معنی‌دار بود (P<0.01). بیشترین غلظت روی در بخش‌هوایی و ریشه گیاه ورک به ترتیب 1125 و 1322 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم ماده خشک در جهت شمال‌شرق و در محدوده 250-0 متری از کارخانه بود. کمترین غلظت روی در بخش‌هوایی و ریشه گیاه ورک به ترتیب 7 و 30 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم ماده خشک در جهت غرب و در محدوده 1500-1250 متری از کارخانه بود. بیشترین مقدار فاکتور انتقال (46/1) در گیاه سلمه‌تره و در محدوده 1500-1250 متری در جهت شمال‌شرق و کمترین مقدار فاکتور انتقال (22/0) در گیاه ورک و در محدوده 1500-1250 متری در جهت غرب کارخانه مشاهده گردید. اثر متقابل جهت، فاصله و گیاه بر غلظت عنصر روی در بخش‌هوایی و ریشه و فاکتور انتقال معنی‌دار بود (P<0.01).
نتیجه‌گیری: درجهت شمال‌شرق (باد غالب) آلودگی گیاه بیشتر تحت تاثیر باد قرار داشت اما در فواصل نزدیک به کارخانه در جهت‌ شرق، فاضلاب خروجی و در جهت غرب، پسماند عامل اصلی آلودگی خاک و گیاه بود. گیاه ورک به خاطر ریشه‌های ضخیم و گسترده‌‌تر خود نسبت به گیاه سلمه‌تره روی بیشتری را توسط ریشه جذب و به بخش‌هوایی انتقال داده بود اما در جهت شمال‌شرق عامل ته‌نشست‌های اتمسفری ناشی از کارخانه نقش مهمی در آلودگی خاک و گیاهان داشت. گیاه سلمه‌تره به خاطر زیست‌توده گیاهی بالا روی را بیشتری در بخش‌هوایی خود نسبت به گیاه ورک با ساقه زبر و تیغ‌دار از هوا جذب نموده بود، به همین دلیل فاکتور انتقال نیز در گیاه سلمه‌تره در فواصل دورتر در جهت باد غالب بیشتر از گیاه ورک بود. ورک در مناطق دپوی پسماندها، روی بیشتری به بخش‌هوایی انتقال داده بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of direction and distance from the Parham-Zinc factory of Zanjan on zinc concentration and translocation factor in Hulthemia persica and Chenopodium album

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Asgari 2
  • mehdi Tafvizi 2
  • Toraj Khoshzaman 2
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: Contamination of soil and plants with heavy elements including zinc, due to industrial activities, might have significant adverse effects on human health. Industrial factories and mines, fertilizers, pesticides and waste water are the most important sources of water, soil and plants contaminations. In Zanjan province, there is a wide range of zinc processing and production factories and mining activities that can contaminate soil, water and plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the zinc concentration of the soil, shoot and root and zinc translocation factor (TF) in dominant rangeland plants (Hulthemia persica and Chenopodium album) in different distances and directions from factory.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design with three replication. The experimental treatments included three directions (northeast, east and west of the factory), six different distances from the factory (0-250, 250-500, 500-7500, 750-1000, 1000-1250, 12500-1500 meters) and two plants (Hulthemia persica and Chenopodium album). The soil and plant samples were collected from the selected sites. Shoot and root samples were digested by concentrated nitric acid and available zinc in soil was extracted by DTPA. The zinc concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Results: The results showed that the effect of direction and distance from the factory was significant on zinc concentration of shoot and root and also translocation factor, (P<0.01). The highest zinc concentration in shoot and root was 1125 and 1322 (mg/kg dry matter) in the northeast direction, in the range of 0 to 250 meters from the factory. The lowest zinc concentration in the shoot and roots was 7 and 30 (mg/kg dry matter) in the west, in the range of 1250 to 1500 meters from the factory. The highest amount of TF (1.46) was observed in Chenopodium album in the range of 1250-1500 meters in the northeast and the lowest TF (0.22) was in Hulthemia persica, in the range of 1250-1500 meters in the west direction. The directions×distances×plants interaction on zinc concentration of shoot, root and also TF were significantly
(P< 0.01).
Conclusion: In the northeast direction (dominant wind), plant and soil pollution was mostly influenced by wind. The main contamination factors of the soil and plant at distances close to the factory were waste water and waste in the east and west direct, respectively. Hulthemia persica, with a broad and thick root system, was able to absorb more zinc and transfer it to the shoot part. But in the northeast direction, the atmospheric deposition of the factory played an important role in soil and plant contamination. Chenopodium album with high vegetation biomass absorbed more zinc from the air in its shoot than Hulthemia persica with rough and blubber stems. For this reason, in the dominant wind direction, the TF was also found in the Chenopodium album at as far from distances higher than Hulthemia persica. Therefore, the absorption of atmospheric zinc was higher in Chenopodium album. In waste disposal areas, Hulthemia Persica had a more translocation factor.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Atmospheric deposition
  • Contamination
  • industrial activities
  • waste disposal
  • Waste water
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