اثر ریزوسفر بر فراهمی عناصر خاک در حضور بیوچار و کمپوست ضایعات هرس و تلقیح میکوریزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد،گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

2 هیات علمی دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشگاه ارومیه، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه علوم خاک

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: ریزوسفر محل تقابل خاک-ریشه، جهان کوچک و پویایی است که در آن میکروارگانیسم‌ها، ریشه‌های گیاه و اجزای خاک با هم در ارتباطند. ضایعات هرس درختان با تبدیل شدن به بیوچار و کمپوست و افزودن به خاک سبب بهبود خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژیک خاک می‌شوند. از جمله راهکار دیگر افزایش فراهمی عناصر غذایی، استفاده از پتانسیل میکروارگانیسم‌ها، همانند قارچ‌های میکوریز آربوسکولار می‌باشد. با توجه به اینکه مطالعه ریزوسفر نتایج سودمندی را به دنبال دارد. لذا هدف از این تحقیق بررسی تاثیر ریزوسفر گندم تیمار شده با بیوچار و کمپوست حاصل از ضایعات هرس درختان و تلقیح میکوریزی بر فراهمی عناصر غذایی پرمصرف در شرایط رایزوباکس بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای انجام این پژوهش، آزمایشی بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی، با سه تکرار شامل منابع آلی (بیوچار ضایعات هرس، کمپوست ضایعات هرس و شاهد)، قارچ میکوریزی (Glomus fasciculatum و عدم تلقیح) و خاک (خاک ریزوسفری و غیرریزوسفری) در شرایط گلخانه‌ای در رایزوباکس اجرا گردید. برای این منظور نمونه خاک غیرزراعی با بافت سبک تهیه شد. بیوچارها از پیرولیز در دمای 350 درجه سانتی‌گراد بدست آمد. کمپوست از گلخانه تحقیقاتی گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه تهیه شد. برای کشت گیاه از رایزوباکس در ابعاد20*15*20 سانتی‌متر (طول، عرض، ارتفاع) استفاده شد. برای انجام آزمون‌های گلخانه‌ای، بیوچار و کمپوست ضایعات هرس هرکدام بر حسب 5/1 درصد کربن آلی خالص به خاک (80/5 کیلوگرم خاک برای هر باکس) اضافه و به باکس‌ها منتقل گردید. برای کشت گیاه، بذر‌های گندم (.Triticum aestivum L) رقم پیشتاز دررایزوباکس‌ها کشت گردیدند. در پایان دوره رشد، pH و قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی (EC) در عصاره‌های صاف شده 1 به 5 (خاک به آب)، کربن‌آلی (OC) به روش والکلی‌بلک، درصد کلنیزاسیون میکوریزی ، نیتروژن (N) ، پتاسیم (K) و فسفر (P) قابل جذب در خاک‌های ریزوسفری و غیرریزوسفری همچنین در گیاه نیز، نیتروژن، پتاسیم و فسفر اندام هوایی به روش‌های استاندارد تعیین شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان pH در تیمار بیوچار (88/7) بدون تلقیح میکوریزی بود. مقدار OC و فراهمی N، P و K در تیمار کمپوست همراه با قارچ‌ میکوریزی بطور معنی‌داری بالاتر از سایر تیمار‌ها بود. همچنین کمپوست در مقایسه با بیوچار مقادیر بیشتری از EC، OC، N، P و K را در ریزوسفر و غیرریزوسفر فراهم کرد. تلقیح میکوریزی فراهمی P وK را در خاک غیرریزوسفر بترتیب 70/1 و 16/1 برابر نسبت به ریزوسفر افزایش داد. مقدار نیتروژن کل در تیمار تلقیح میکوریزی ریزوسفر 19/1 برابر بیشتر از غیرریزوسفر بود. جذب بیشتر N، P و Kتوسط گیاه در تلقیح میکوریزی بیوچار سبب افزایش 1/48، 6/39 و 8/38 درصدی نسبت به شاهد شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: استفاده از منابع آلی، خصوصیات شیمیایی ریزوسفر را بطور چشمگیری تغییر داد و منجر به افزایش قابلیت دسترسی عناصر غذایی در خاک و در نهایت افزایش فراهمی آن‌ها در گیاه شد. همچنین استفاده از روش رایزوباکس با افزودن ماده‌آلی به همراه تلقیح میکوریزی توانست فرآیندهای میکروبی‌ ریزوسفری مرتبط با فراهمی عناصر غذایی را به خوبی نشان دهد. چنین استنباط می‌گردد که کاربرد بیوچار و کمپوست در شرایط تلقیح میکوریزی منجر به افزایش فراهمی عناصر غذایی در خاک و گیاه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of rhizosphere on availability of soil elements in the presence of biochar and compost pruning waste and mycorrhizal inoculation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roghayeh Vahedi 1
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 2
  • Mohsen Barin 3
1 MSc. Student, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University, Iran
2 Prof., of Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University,Iran
3 Assistance Prof., of Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University,Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objective: The rhizospher, a soil-root interface, is a dynamic microcosm where interact microorganisms, plant roots and soil constituents. Trees pruning waste by turning into biochar and compost and adding to soil improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Another approach to availability is to use the potential microorganisms such as Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Considering that rhizospher studies have beneficial results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wheat rhizosphere treated with biochar and compost prepared from trees pruning and mycorrhizal inoculation on availability of macronutrient in rhizobox condition.
Materials and methods: This study was carried out in a factorial based on completely randomized design under greenhouse condition in rhizobox. The factors including organic sources (pruning waste biochar, pruning waste compost and control), mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus fasciculatum and non-inoculation) and soil (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil). For this purpose, a soil sample with light texture was prepared. Biochars produced from temperature of approximately 350°C. Also, compost was prepared from the research greenhouse department of soil science of Urmia University. The plant was planted in Rizobox at 20 * 15 * 20 cm (length, width and height). In order to greenhouse tests, the biochar and compost added to the boxes in terms of 1.5% pure organic carbon (each box containing 5.80 kg of soil). For plant cultivation, wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Pishtaz were grown in rhizobaxes. At the end of the growth period, pH and EC (1:5, soil: water), organic carbon by walkley-black method, The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, Nitrogen, Potassium, phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils and content macronutrients in the plant were determined.
Results: The results showed that the highest pH was in biochar (7.88) non- mycorrhizal inoculation. The amount of OC, N, P and K in compost treatment with mycorrhizal inoculation were significantly higher than other treatments. Compost treatments in comparison with biochar provided more contents of EC, OC, N, P and K in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the availability of P and K by 1.70 and 1.16 times in non-rhiozospher soil, compared to the rhizosphere. However, the content N in the rhizosphere soil of the mycorrhizal inoculation treatment was 1.19 times higher than non-rhizosphere soil. The higher uptake of N, P and K by plant in inoculum of mycorrhiza biochar increased 48.1, 39.6 and 38.8% compared to the control, respectively.
Conclusion: the use of organic materials significantly changed the chemical properties of the rhizosphere and increased the availability of nutrients in calcareous soils. Ultimately, they increase availability of nutrients in plants. Also, the use of rizhobox method by adding organic matter along with mycorrhizal inoculation could justify the microbial-rhizospheric processes in relation to the availability of nutrients. It can be concluded that the application of biochar and compost in mycorrhizal inoculations leads to an increase in the nutrients availibity in soils and plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rhizosphere
  • Organic matter
  • nutrient availiblity
  • mycorrhizal inoculation
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