تاثیر برخی کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر جذب روی و شاخص‌های رشدی بابونه آلمانی (Matricaria chamomilla L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه خاکشناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 استادیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

4 دانشیار گروه باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: روی یکی از مهم ترین عناصر غذایی ضروری است که گیاهان برای انجام فعالیتهای فیزیولوژیکی خود به این عنصر نیاز دارند. خاکهای آهکی ایران با مشکل کمبود روی قابل جذب برای گیاه مواجه هستند، بنابراین مطالعه افزایش فراهمی این عنصر در این خاک‌ها ضروری و دارای اهمیت است. از این میان کود‌های آلی به ویژه کود‌های دامی در مقایسه با کود‌های شیمیایی دارای منابع غذایی مختلف برای استفاده گیاهان هستند. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تاثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر جذب روی و شاخص‌های عملکردی گیاه بابونه آلمانی (Matricaria chamomilla L.) انجام شده است.
مواد و روش‌ها: این پژوهش به صورت کشت گلدانی و طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار صورت گرفت. فاکتور‌های آزمایش شامل کود گاوی و کمپوست باگاس (هر کدام در دو سطح 10 و 5 تن در هکتار) و کود شیمیایی سولفات روی به مقدار 40 کیلوگرم در هکتار و تیمار شاهد (بدون افزودن هر گونه تیمار آلی و شیمیایی) می‌باشند. طی دوره آزمایش میزان کلروفیلa، b، کلروفیل کل و کاروتنویید اندازه‌گیری شد. در مرحله گلدهی کامل، بخش هوایی گیاه برداشت و وزن خشک اندام هوایی و مقدار روی در ریشه، ساقه، برگ و گل پس از خاکستر‌‌گیری از اندام گیاه، به کمک دستگاه جذب اتمی اندازه‌گیری شد. همچنین مقدار روی قابل دسترس خاک با استفاده از عصاره‌گیر DTPAاندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان دهنده تأثیر مثبت کود گاوی بر عملکرد، غلظت و جذب روی در گیاه بابونه آلمانی بود. بالاترین عملکرد برگ و گل در تیمار 10 تن در هکتار کود گاوی به ترتیب با افزایش 15/73 % و 58/31 % نسبت به شاهد مشاهده شد. همچنین بیشترین غلظت روی در ریشه و ساقه بابونه در تیمار 10 تن در هکتار کود گاوی بود. بیشترین جذب روی در ریشه، ساقه، برگ و گل در تیمار 10 تن در هکتار کود گاوی مشاهده شد. به طور کلی استفاده از کود‌های آلی موجب افزایش غلظت و جذب روی و عملکرد گیاه بابونه آلمانی شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که کاربرد کود‌های آلی می‌توانند نقش مفید و مؤثری در بهبود جذب روی در گیاه دارویی بابونه آلمانی داشته باشند. با توجه به نتایج این آزمایش، می‌توان عنوان کرد که افزایش مقدار روی در گیاه بابونه به خاطر افزایش مقدار قابل دسترس روی در خاک به واسطه کاهش pH خاک و در نتیجه جذب بهتر و تاثیر گذاری بر روی عملکرد بوده است. به دلیل مشکلات زیست محیطی ناشی از مصرف کودهای شیمیایی، می توان از کودهای آلی قابل دسترس مانند کمپوست و کود گاوی استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of some organic and chemical fertilizers on zinc uptake and growth indices of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.).

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahar Monjezi 1
  • Mojtaba Norouzi masir 2
  • Abdolamir Moezzi 3
  • Mohammad Mahmoudisourestani 4
1 M.Sc, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant professor of soil science, Shahid chamran university of Ahvaz
3 Associate Professor of Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
4 Associate Professor of Horticulture Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Effect of some organic and chemical fertilizers on zinc uptake and growth indices of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.).
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Zinc (Zn) is one of the most important essential nutrients that plants require it for their physiological functions. Calcareous soils of Iran are facing the problem of the available Zn for the plant. Therefore, studying the increase in the amount of this element in these soils is essential and important. Among them organic fertilizers in comparison with chemical fertilizer, especially livestock manure has different food sources for use by plants. This research was done to investigate the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on zinc uptake and functional indices of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.).
Materials and Methods: For this purpose, in the form of potted cultivar and completely randomized design was carried out in three replications. The experiment factors consisted of cow manure and bagasse compost (each with 10 and 5 ton/ha) and chemical fertilizer of 40 kg / ha zinc sulfate and control (without adding any organic and chemical treatments). During the experiment, chlorophylla, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid were measured. At full flowering stage, aerial part dry weight and also its zinc concentration was determined. Also, available zinc was measured using DTPA.
Results: The results showed a positive effect of cow manure on yield, zinc concentration and uptake in German chamomile breed. The Maximum yield of leaves and flowers was observed in treatment of 10 ton/ha of cow manure with 73.15% and 31.6%, respectively. Also, the Maximum zinc concentration in root and stem of chamomile was in treatment of 10 ton/ha of cow manure. The Maximum zinc uptake was observed in root, stem, leaf and flower in 10 ton/ha cow manure. Generally, the use of organic fertilizers increased zinc concentration and uptake, and yield of German chamomile plants.
Conclusions: The results showed that using of organic fertilizers can have useful role in improving the uptake of nutrients and morphological parameters in German chamomile. Based on these experimental results, it could be concluded that Zinc optimal situation in chamomile was due to increasing the amount of elements such as zinc in the soil due to soil pH reduction and resulting in better uptake and impact on yield. Among the treatments used cow manure was found to be more suitable. Due to environmental issues of chemical fertilizers, available organic manures including compost and cow manure can be applied.

Key Words: German chamomile, Cow manure, Compost, Zinc sulfate

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • German chamomile
  • Cow manure
  • compost
  • Zinc sulfate
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