ارزیابی جمعیت و وزن زنده کرم‌های خاکی تحت تاثیر کودهای شیمیایی و آلی در خاک یک باغ

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کرم‌های خاکی به خاطر نقش مفیدشان در زیست بوم کشاورزی، به عنوان موجودات نشانگر در پایش اثرات مواد آلوده کننده و تغییر در ساختمان و کیفیت خاک، مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی تأثیر مدیریت مصرف کودهای شیمیایی بر فراوانی و وزن زنده کرم‌های خاکی در خاک یک باغ بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش در باغی در استان اصفهان به اجرا درآمد. پلات های آزمایشی به مساحت یک مترمربع در نظر گرفته شد. پس از ایجاد شخم و شیار به عمق 5 سانتیمتر در هر پلات، از هریک از کودهای رایج و بر اساس آزمون خاک شامل کود اوره (Urea)، سولفات آمونیوم(AS)، دی آمونیوم فسفات(DAP)، سولفات پتاسیم یا سولو پتاس(Solupotas)، کود کامل ماکرو حاوی نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم ( NPK, 15-5-25)، ترکیب کود دامی پوسیده شده و کود کامل ماکرو (NPK+OM) به نسبت دو به یک ، کود دامی(OM)، کود کلات روی (Zn-EDDHA) و کود کلات آهن (Fe-EDDHA)، استفاده شد و پلات شاهد بدون مصرف هر نوع کود شیمیایی و دامی (Control)، در نظر گرفته شدند. بررسی فراوانی و وزن زنده کرم‌ها در دو مرحله زمانی و در دو عمق 20-0 و 40-20 سانتیمتری خاک، انجام شد. در مرحله اول، بیست روز پس از افزودن کودها و در مرحله دوم، شصت روز پس از مصرف کودها، نمونه برداری از کرم‌های خاکی و بررسی تغییرات در آنها انجام شد. تیمارها در سه تکرار اعمال شد و داده ها در قالب تجزیه واریانس دو طرفه (با استفاده از فرآیند GLM) و با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS تحلیل آماری شدند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج در روز بیستم نشان داد در عمق 20-0 سانتیمتری خاک، اوره، سولفات آمونیوم، دی آمونیوم فسفات، کود کامل ماکرو NPK و کلات آهن، بر فراوانی و وزن زنده‌ی کرم‌های خاکی تأثیر منفی معنی‌دار (05/0≥p) داشته است و در همین حال کود دامی (OM) و NPK+OM موجب افزایش جمعیت و زیتوده کرم‌ها شدند. در عمق 40-20 سانتیمتری خاک، از نقش منفی کودهای اوره، سولفات آمونیوم، دی آمونیوم فسفات، کود کامل ماکرو NPK و کلات آهن کاسته شد و کود NPK+OM نقش مثبت خود را حفظ کرد. در روز شصت‌ام نمونه‌برداری، در عمق 20-0 سانتیمتری، کودهای اوره، سولفات آمونیوم، دی آمونیوم فسفات و کود آهن موجب کاهش جمعیت و زیتوده کرم‌ها در خاک شدند اما تیمارهای NPK+OM، OM و کلات روی (Zn) موجب افزایش جمعیت کرم‌ها شدند. در عمق پایین‌تر خاک (40-20 سانتیمتر) در روز شصت‌ام، جمعیت کرم‌های خاکی تحت تأثیر هیچ یک از کودها قرار نگرفتند و کودهای نیتروژنه و فسفاته نه تنها تأثیر منفی بر فعالیت کرم‌ها نداشتند بلکه باعث افزایش معنی‌دار (05/0≥p) زیتوده کرم‌ها شدند.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان داد که کودهای شیمیایی تأثیر معنی‌داری بر جانداران خاک از جمله کرم‌های خاکی دارند، این تأثیرات می‌تواند براساس ماهیت و میزان کود، و همچنین عمق اثرگذاری کود، متفاوت باشد. بر این اساس و به منظور کاهش اثرات منفی کودهای شیمیایی بر موجودات زنده‌ی خاک توصیه می‌شود در خاک‌های کم عمق، میزان مصرف آنها کاهش یابد و به هنگام کاربرد آنها، از کودهای آلی نیز استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Population and live weight of earthworms affected by chemical and organic fertilizers in the soil of an orchard

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Yahyaabadi
  • Amir Hossein Hamidian
  • Sohrab Ashrafi
Environment department, Natural resources faculty, Tehran university, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Earthworms, due to their beneficial role in agroecosystems, are used as indicator species for monitoring the impact of pollutants, changes in soil structure and agricultural practices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of chemical fertilizers management on the density and live weight of earthworms in the soil of an orchard.
Materials and methods: Research was carried out in an orchard in Isfahan province. One square meter area was considered as experimental plot. After plowing and grooving at a depth of 5 centimeters per plot, common fertilizers were applied, based on the soil test. Chemical fertilizers such as urea, ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate, solupotas, NPK (15, 5, 25), zinc chelate, iron chelate and cow manure were used as experimental treatments with control (no fertilizer). Abundance and live weight of worms were evaluated in two stages of time and in 2 depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm of soil. In the first stage, 20 days after the addition of fertilizers, and in the second stage, 60 days after fertilization, earthworms were sampled and their number and biomass changes were measured. Treatments were applied in three replications and the data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (using the GLM process) by SPSS software. In addition, the means were tested with the least significant difference (LSD) at the probability level of 5%.
Results: The assessment of the worms was accomplished at two different depths and at two different times. Sampling in 20th day of experiment showed that at soil depths of 0-20 cm, urea, ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate, macro fertilizer NPK and iron chelate had significant negative effect on the abundance and weight of earthworms (p≤0.05). Meanwhile, cow manure (OM) and NPK+OM treatments increased the population and biomass of earthworms. In the depth of 20 to 40 cm, the negative role of urea, ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate, NPK fertilizer and iron chelate was decreased, and the NPK+OM maintained its positive role. On the 60th day of sampling, at 0-20 cm depth, urea, ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate and iron fertilizer reduced the population and biomass of worms in the soil. However, NPK+OM, OM and zinc chelate (Zn) treatments increased the number of earthworms. At a lower depth (20-40 cm) on the 60th day, the earthworm population was not affected by any of the inorganic fertilizers and nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers not only had no negative effect on the activity of earthworms but also significantly increased their biomass (p≤0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that chemical fertilizers could have a significant effect on soil organisms, including earthworms. These effects could vary according to the nature and extent of fertilization, as well as the depth of fertilizer usage. Accordingly, in order to reduce the negative effects of chemical fertilizers on soil organisms, it is advisable to reduce their application in shallow soils and when applying, organic fertilizers should be used along with chemical fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Earthworms
  • Population
  • Biomass
  • Macro and micro fertilizers
  • Organic fertilizer
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