عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Background and objectives: Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in pulse crops. The simple and interaction effects between microorganisms, especially fungi, phosphate and Zinc (Zn) solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium bacteria can have very effective impacts on nutrient uptake, plant height, branch number, germination, plant growth, nodulation, BNF, colonization and yield in different plants.This study was done to evaluate the effect of Phosphate, Nitrogen (N), and Zn bio-fertilizers on growth morphological characteristics, nodulation, BNF and root colonization in two cultivars of bean.
Materials and methods: This experiment was carried out as a factorial in a randomized complete design (RCD) with three replications. The research treatments consisted of two cultivars of Pinto bean (Talash and Sadri), four levels of Phosphurus (P) (P0: Control, P1: Use of triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizer on the basis of soil test, P2: 50 percentage of TSP recommendation and phosphate bio-fertilizer that consist of of inoculum of Funneliformiss mosseae, Rhizophagus intraradices and Clariodeoglumus etunicatum with Azotobacter bacteria , and P3: Use of P bio-fertilizer), three levels of N (N0: Control, N1: Use of urea, and N2: Use of biological Nitrogen that consist of Rhizobium legominosarium bv. phaseoli strain 133-136-111 inoculation), and Zn (Zn0: Control, Zn1: 50 kg ha-1ZnSO4, and Zn2: Use of biological Zn consist of Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain MPFM and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 187 inoculum). Grain inoculation was done in shadow and after drying, inoculated grains were immediately cultivated. The measured properties consist of morphological growth characteristics, nodulation, nodule number and root colonization.
Results: The results of experiment indicated that the effect of cultivar, P, N and Zn treatments was significant on studied parameters. The maximum of these parameters was obtained from Sadri cultivar, P2, P3, N2 and Zn2 bio treatments. The highest of studied parameters was obtained from P2Zn2, P2N2 and N2Zn2 treatments among the dual interaction effects. The concurrent inoculation of bean with mixture of mycorhizae + Azetobacter + R. leguminosarum + Pseudomonas significantly increased plant wet weight and nodule number. The triple interaction effect was significance on plant wet weight and nodule numbere only. The maximum amount of plant wet weight (45.3 gram per pot) and nodule number per shrub (28 nodules) were obtained from P2N2Zn1 and P3N2Zn2 treatments respectively. Despite the lack of significance difference interactions between triplicate treatments, the maximum amount of nodule grade, colonization percentage and BNF, 16.4, 44.9 perceent and 64.4 Kg ha-1 respectively were obtained from P3N2Zn2 treatment. Also, the highest amount of plant dry weight, the number of germinated shrub and emergency speed, 22.5 g pot-1, 4.3 shrub pot-1 and 0.54 shrub day-1 respectively were obtained from the combined treatments of P2N2Zn2 and P2N2Zn3.
Conclusion: The maximum of studied parameters was obtained from P2, P3, N2 and Zn2 which represents the effective role of mycorrhizae fungi, phosphate and Zn solubilizing bacteria in increasing growth morphological properties, wet and dry weight, nodulation, colonization, BNF and reduction of P and N fertilizers. The studird parameters were increased with ombined using of double and triple of phosphate, nitrogen and zinc biotreatments. The combined use of phosphate, nitrogen and zinc, P2N2Zn2 treatment, is recommended to increase the morphological growth characteristics, nodulation and other studied parameters in this experiment.