تاثیر بیوچار و قارچ Piriformospora indica بر عملکرد ذرت در خاک آلوده به روی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی، علوم خاک، دانشگاه شیراز

2 استادیار علوم خاک دانشگاه شیراز

3 استادیار، بخش علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

4 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: رابطه همزیستی قارچ‌های اندوفیت و گیاهان به دلیل اثرات قابل توجه آن‌ها بر رشد و عملکرد گیاهان در شرایط آلودگی خاک نقش مؤثری در افزایش مقاومت گیاهان به تنش فلزات سنگین دارد. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر بیوچار پوست برنج و قارچ اندوفیت Piriformospora indica بر برخی شاخص‌های رشدی (ارتفاع، وزن تر و قطر اندام هوایی) گیاه ذرت و برخی ویژگی‌های بیولوژیکی (تنفس میکروبی و کربن زیست توده میکروبی) در یک خاک آلوده به روی در شرایط گلخانه انجام گردید.
مواد و روش‌ها: جهت انجام این آزمایش، مقدار کافی خاک از افق سطحی صفر تا 30 سانتی‌متری خاک جمع آوری شد. پس از هوا خشک کردن نمونه ها از الک دو میلی‌متری عبور داده شد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی شامل تیمارهای سولفات روی (0، 50، 100، 200 و 300 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک )، بیوچارپوست برنج (0، 2 و 4 درصد وزنی) و قارچ Piriformospora indica (عدم تلقیح و تلقیح) انجام شد. جهت تهیه بیوچار از بقایای پوست برنج استفاده شد که بقایا به مدت چهار ساعت در دمای 500 درجه سلسیوس در شرایط اکسیژن محدود تولید شد. جهت تکثیر قارچ و تولید مقدار کافی اسپور، جدایه-های قارچ مذکور کشت و در دمای 24 درجه سلسیوس درون انکوباتور به مدت چهار هفته نگهداری شد. قبل از کشت ذرت، بعد از اضافه کردن بیوچار و روی، خاک به مدت 2 ماه در شرایط رطوبت مزرعه‌ای در دمای 25 درجه سیلسیوس خوابانیده شد. هشت هفته پس از رشد گیاه، برخی ویژگی‌های بیولوژیک و مورفولوژی در گیاه ذرت اندازه‌گیری گردید.
یافته‌ها: در سطوح 2 و 4 درصد وزنی بیوچار، وزن تر اندام هوایی گیاهان شاهد (تلقیح نیافته با قارچ ) به ترتیب 14/4، 18/9 درصد، ارتفاع اندام هوایی به ترتیب 49/3 و 43/8 درصد و قطر ساقه به ترتیب 18/3 و 25/9 درصد افزایش معنی‌داری یافت. در حالیکه در شرایط مشابه، وزن تر اندام هوایی گیاهان تلقیح یافته با قارچ به ترتیب 73/5، 76/12درصد، ارتفاع اندام هوایی به مقدار 84/4 و 67/7 درصد و قطر ساقه به ترتیب 71/6 و 16/22 درصد نسبت به گیاهان شاهد افزایش معنی‌دار نشان دادند. همچنین میانگین تنفس میکروبی و کربن زیست توده میکروبی در خاک پس از برداشت ذرت در گیاهان فاقد قارچ P. indica در شرایط کاربرد سطوح 2 و 4 درصد وزنی بیوچار نسبت به شاهد بدون بیوچار به ترتیب 33/39، 83/47 درصد و 69/12، 30/31 درصد افزایش یافت (p<0.05). اما مقدار شاخص-های مذکور در گیاهان تلقیح یافته با قارچ در سطوح 2 و 4 درصد وزنی بیوچار نسبت به شاهد بدون بیوچار به ترتیب 85/40، 63/46 درصد و 96/2، 48/26 درصد افزایش یافت (p<0.05).
نتیجه‌گیری: کاربرد سطوح 2 و 4 درصد وزنی بیوچار سبب افزایش ارتفاع، وزن تر و قطر اندام هوایی گیاه ذرت و نیز افزایش تنفس میکروبی و کربن زیست توده میکروبی خاک نسبت به سطح شاهد گردید، در حالی که این افزایش در گیاهان تلقیح یافته با قارچ P. indica بیشتر می‌باشد. می‌توان گفت افزایش سطوح بیوچار سبب افزایش قابلیت جذب عناصر غذایی و بهبود رشد گیاه می‌گردد. همچنین قارچ P. indica احتمالاٌ به دلیل تولید مواد محرک رشد و همچنین افزایش قابلیت فراهمی عناصر غذایی معدنی برای گیاه، سبب بهبود رشد گیاه ذرت شده است. همچنین ارتفاع، وزن تر و قطر اندام هوایی گیاه در سطوح 50 و 100 میلی‌گرم روی در کیلوگرم خاک افزایش و در سطوح بالاتر (200 و 300 میلی‌گرم روی در کیلوگرم خاک) کاهش یافت، احتمالا در سطوح بالای روی به دلیل کاهش سیتوکنین، آهن، پتاسیم و کلسیم و همچنین افزایش اتیلن و باز دارنده‌های رشد مانع رشد گیاه ذرت شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Rice Husk Biochar and Piriformospora Indica Endophytic Fungus on corn yeild in Zn contaminated soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra dianat maharluei 1
  • jafar yasrebi 2
  • mozhgan Sepehri 3
  • reza ghasemi 4
1 M.Sc Graduated,Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University
2 Assistant Professor, Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University
3 Assistant Professor, Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University
4 associati,Professor, Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: The symbiotic relationship between endophytic fungi and plants due to its significant influences on the growth and yield of plants under the conditions of soil pollution has an effective role in heavy metal stress tolerance in plants. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of rice husk biochar and the endophytic fungus; Piriformospora indica; on some growth indicators (the shoot height, fresh weight and stem diameter) on corn and biological properties (microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon) of a Zn-polluted soil under greenhouse condition.
Materials and Methods: To do this research, suitable amount of soil from surface horizon (0-30) of a calcareous soil was collected, After air drying, samples were passed through a 2 mm sieve. This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized factorial design experiment with three factors including Zn (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 soil), rice husk biochar (0, 2 and 4 weight percent) and P. indica (non-inoculated and inoculation with fungi). Biochars were produced using the pyrolysis of rice husk (500 °C for 4 h) in the limited oxygen conditions. For propagation of fungi and production of sufficient amount of spores, the isolates of the fungus were cultured and stored at 24 °C in the incubator for 4 weeks. Before the corn was cultivated, after addition of biochar and zinc for 2 months, soil was incubated in field capacity moisture conditions at 25 °C. After 8 weeks of plant growth some biological and morphological characteristics were measured.
Results: At levels of 2 and 4 (% w/w) biochar, The shoot fresh weight, the shoot height, and stem diameter of the control plants and non-inoculated with P. indica significantly increased by 4.14 and 9.18 percent, 3.49 and 8.43 percent, 3.18 and 9.25 percent respectively.
Whereas in the same conditions, shoot fresh weight of plants inoculation of P. indica was 5.73 and 12.76 percent, the shoot height was 4.84 and 7.67 percent, and stem diameter showed a significant increase 6.71 and 22.61 percent compared to the control plants respectively. Also average microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon in soil after corn harvesting in non-inoculated of P. indica plants in condition at levels of 2 and 4 (% w/w) biochar of the control (without biochar) 39.33 and 47.83 percent and 12.69 and 31.30 percent significant increase respectively (p<0.05). But the amount of these indicators of plants inoculation of P. indica at levels of 2 and 4 (% w/w) biochar of the control (without biochar) 40.85 and 46.63 percent and 2.96 and 26.48 percent significant increase respectively (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Application of 2 and 4 (% w/w) biochar resulted in significant increases in the shoot height, fresh weight and stem diameter on corn plant as well as microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon of the soil. While this increase is more in the plants inoculation with P. Indica fungi. Increasing biochar levels increases the nutrients absorption and improves plant growth. In addition, the P. indica fungi is likely to improve corn growth due to the production of growth stimulants and the increased nutritional capacity of the mineral nutrients for the plant. Also, the height, fresh weight and diameter of the shoots increased at levels of 50 and 100 mg kg-1 of Zn and decreased at higher levels (200 and 300 mg kg-1), possibly at high zinc levels due to decreased cytokinin, Iron, potassium and calcium, as well as increased ethylene and growth inhibitors inhibit corn growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • Endophytic fungi
  • Microbial respiration
  • microbial biomass carbon
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