اثرات کاربرد اسید هیومیک بر بعضی ویژگی‌‌های شیمیایی خاک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم در یک خاک شور-سدیمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج

2 کارشناسی ارشد بخش تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: یکی از مهم‌‌ترین دلایل کاهش عملکرد در خاک‌های تحت تأثیر شوری، سمیت نمک، خصوصیات شیمیایی و فیزیکی نامناسب خاکها می‌باشد که می‌تواند اثرات عمیقی بر اکوسیستم‌های زراعی بگذارد. برای افزایش تولید گیاه در خاک‌های شور، روش‌هایی از جمله آبشویی، کشت گیاهان سازگار، استفاده از ارقام مناسب، روش‌های به‌زراعی، استفاده از مواد تنظیم‌‌کننده‌ی رشد گیاهی ‌پیشنهاد شده است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی میزان تأثیر کاربرد ترکیبات حاوی اسید هیومیک بر رشد و عملکرد گیاه و ویژگی‌های شیمیایی یک خاک شور-سدیمی انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌‌ها: به منظور بررسی تأثیر اسید هیومیک بر خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک، رشد و عملکرد گندم رقم ارگ، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار بصورت کرتهای دو بار خرد شده (اسپلیت اسپلیت پلات) اجرا شد. سطوح شوری آب آبیاری (2 و 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر) در کرت‌های اصلی، زمان مصرف کود هیومستر فود (مایع) کاربرد در اسفند، کاربرد در فروردین، کاربرد در هر دو زمان و بدون مصرف کود) در کرت‌های فرعی و سطوح کود آلی پارس هیومیک گرانول جامد (0، 75 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در کرت‌های فرعی فرعی بودند. قبل از کاشت و پس از برداشت محصول، از خاک مزرعه نمونه‌برداری شده و مقدار یون‌های سدیم، مجموع کلسیم و منیزیم، قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی عصاره اشباع، نسبت جذبی سدیم، واکنش خاک و درصد ماده‌آلی اندازه‌گیری گردیدند. در انتهای دوره رشد گیاه، ارتفاع، عملکرد اندام هوایی، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه اندازه‌گیری شد و شاخص برداشت نیز محاسبه گردید.
یافته ها: تجزیه واریانس داده های حاصل از آزمایش نشان داد که اثرات متقابل هیومسترفود و پارس هیومیک و اثرات متقابل شوری، هیومسترفود و پارس هیومیک بر وزن خشک اندام هوایی در سطح احتمال 5 درصد معنی دار گردید. تجزیه واریانس تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی بر ویژگی های مربوط خاک نیز نشان داد اثرات متقابل سطوح شوری و تیمارهای کود هیومسترفود و پارس هیومیک بر نسبت جذبی سدیم در سطح احتمال 1 درصد معنی دار شد. مقایسه میانگین ها نشان داد مصرف کود آلی هیومستر فود در اسفند و فروردین، غلظت سدیم، مجموع کلسیم و منیزیم و نسبت جذبی سدیم را به ترتیب به میزان 3/37، 1/30 و 4/28 درصد در مقایسه با شاهد کاهش داد و باعث افزایش وزن خشک اندام هوایی گندم، به میزان 5/8 درصد در مقایسه با شاهد گردید.
نتیجه گیری: توانایی اسید هیومیک موجود در کودهای حاوی اسید هیومیک، برای ایجاد تغییرات در غلظت کاتیون های تک ظرفیتی و دو ظرفیتی خاک و نهایتاً تغییر در نسبت جذبی سدیم خاک، نفوذ پذیری و نهایتا افزایش آبشویی خاک مطلوب بوده و کاربرد آنها در مناطقی که خاک ها محدودیت زهکشی ناشی از نسبت جذبی سدیم بالا دارند پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Humic Acid Application on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat and Some Chemical Properties of a Saline-Sodic Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad javad rousta 1
  • kokab enayati 2
1 Associate Prof., Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research
2 M.Sc. of Soil Science, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural
چکیده [English]

Background and Objective: One of the most important reasons for the decrease of yield in salt affected soils is ion toxicity, poor chemical and physical properties of soils, can have profound effects on crop ecosystems. In order to increase the plant production in saline soils, considering salinity and weather conditions, methods such as soil leaching, compatible plant cultivation, the use of suitable cultivars, agronomy operations, and the use of plant growth regulating agents have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of humic acid compounds application on plant growth and yield and chemical characteristics of a saline-sodic soil.
Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of humic acid on soil chemical characteristics, wheat growth and yield of Arg cultivar, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. a split split plot experiment carried out as a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates in which there were 2 levels of irrigation salinity (2 and 10 dS/m) as the main plots, 4 levels of Humaster Food application in different stages of growth (without application, application in March or April and in both months) as the sub plots and also application of Pars Humic in 3 levels (0, 75 and 150 Kg/ha) randomly in every sub plot. Before planting and after harvesting, soil samples were taken from the soil and the amount of sodium ions, the sum of calcium and magnesium, electrical conductivity of saturated extract, sodium ratio, pH, and organic matter percentage were measured. At the end of the plant growth period, height, shoot yield, grain number per spike, 1000 seed weight and grain yield were measured and harvest index was calculated.
Results: The analysis of variance of the data obtained from the experiment showed that the interaction between Humasterfood and Pars Humic and the interaction effects of salinity, Humasterfood and Pars Humic on shoot dry weight were significant at p < 0.05. The effect of treatments on soil specific properties also showed that the interactions between salinity levels and Humasterfood and Pars Humic on sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was significant at p < 0.01. Means comparison showed that the application of Humasterfood in March and April, decreased the concentration of sodium and calcium + magnesium, and SAR as amount as 37.3, 30.1, and 28.4 %, respectively. Also, this fertilizer increased the shoot dry weight as 8.5 % compared to control.
Conclusion: The ability of humic acid in humic acid containing fertilizers to modify the concentration of single and bivalent soil cations and changes in SAR, permeability and, finally, increased soil leaching are desirable and suggested their application in areas where soils are to be drainage constraints due to high SAR .

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Humaster-Food
  • Organic fertilizer
  • Pars-Humic
  • Salinity
  • Wheat
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