ارزیابی خطر ناشی از مس و روی در گندم، برنج و خاک اطراف معدن ایرانکوه اصفهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)

3 عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: مس و روی گرچه از عناصر کم مصرف ضروری برای انسان هستند ولی افزایش جذب این دو عنصر باعث ایجاد بیماری های مختلف در انسان می شود. بنابراین تعیین غلظت مس و روی در محصولات کشاورزی و ارزیابی تأثیر آنها بر سلامت انسان ضروری به نظر می رسد. این تحقیق با هدف تعیین غلظت مس و روی در گندم، برنج و خاک اطراف معدن ایرانکوه و ارزیابی ضرائب خطر آنها بر سلامت انسان نسبت به بیماری های غیرسرطانی در استان اصفهان انجام شد.
مواد و روشها: در این تحقیق از خاک و محصولات عمده زراعی منطقه شامل گندم و برنج نمونه برداری شد. نمونه برداری بصورت تصادفی و مرکب از ده مزرعه گندم و ده مزرعه برنج انجام شد. از هر گیاه (برنج و گندم) و از خاک سطحی ( عمق صفر تا 20 سانتی متری خاک) در هر مزرعه 3 نمونه مرکب و تصادفی برداشته شد.
یافته ها: غلظت کل مس و روی در خاک مورد مطالعه به ترتیب 62/28 و 78/269 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم به دست آمد. میانگین غلظت مس در برنج و گندم به ترتیب 84/11 و 43/8 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم و برای روی به ترتیب 82/92 و 06/29 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم به دست آمد. غلظت مس و روی در خاک و گیاهان با افزایش فاصله از معدن کاهش یافت. جذب روزانه مس و روی به ترتیب 05/34 و 43/214 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن در روز برای بزرگسالان ،17/32 و 6/199 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن در روز برای کودکان برآورد شد. این مقادیر کمتر از میزان مجاز ورود مس و روی به بدن انسان بر طبق استاندارد جهانیWHO (1993) که به ترتیب 40 و 300 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن در روز گزارش شده است، می باشد. مس و روی جذب شده از طریق تماس پوستی با خاک در حالت بیشینه برای کودکان و افراد بالغ به ترتیب 4-10×44/9 و 4-10×03/1 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن در روز برای مس و به ترتیب 3-10×9/8 و 4-10×84/9 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن در روز برای روی می باشد. همچنین جذب از طریق استنشاق مس و روی موجود در ذرات معلق خاک در حالت بیشینه برای کودکان و افراد بالغ به ترتیب 5-10×4/1 و 6-10×6/7 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن در روز برای مس و به ترتیب 4-10×32/1 و 5-10×19/7 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن در روز برای روی می باشد. این اعداد از مقدار مبناء جذب از طریق پوست و استنشاق که برای مس و روی به ترتیب 4/0 و 3 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن در روز می باشد، بسیار کمتر است.
نتیجه گیری: در مجموع نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که پتانسیل خطرپذیری(HQ) برای مس و روی از طریق مسیرهای مطالعه شده کمتر از یک می باشد و احتمال ابتلا به بیماریهای غیر سرطانی از این مسیرها برای مصرف کنندگان وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Risk assessment of zinc and copper exposure in rice, wheat and soil around Irankooh mine in Isfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehnoosh Barin 2
  • Jaber Fallah zade 3
1 assist prof, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University
2 M.Sc. Graduate, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University
3 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University
چکیده [English]

ABSTRACT
Background and Objectives: Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) are essential micronutrients for human health but elevated heavy metal uptake is the etiology of a number of diseases in the human body.S o, it is necessary to investigate the copper and zinc concentrations in agricultural products and their effects on human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the Zn and Cu concentrations in food products and the risk assessment of these elements on human health for non-carcinogenic diseases around Irankooh mine in Isfahan province, Iran.
Materials and Methods: The crop (rice and wheat) samples were obtained in ten different fields for each investigated crop and then three composite samples of the edible portion of the mentioned crops were collected. In addition, three composite surface soil samples were taken from the fields (rice and wheat) in each sampling points.
Results: The total concentration of Cu and Zn were 28.62 mg kg−1 and 269.78 mg kg−1 in soil samples, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu were 11.84 and 8.43 mg kg−1 in rice and wheat respectively. Also, the mean concentrations of Zn were 92.82 and 29.06 mg kg−1 in rice and wheat respectively. The Cu and Zn concentrations in soils and plants decreased in the order of distance from the mine. The dietary intakes of Zn and Cu are estimated respectively as 214.43 and 34.05 µg kg−1day−1 for adults, and 199.6 and 32.17 µg kg−1 day−1 for children. These values were lower than the WHO levels for human consumption which are 40 and 300 µg kg−1day-1 for Cu and Zn, respectively. The estimated dermal absorbed doses for RME (Reasonable Maximum Exposure) scenarios of Cu through soil exposure were 9.44×10-4 and 1.03×10-4 µg kg-1 day-1 for children and adults, respectively. These values for Zn were 8.9×10-3 and 9.84×10-4 µg kg-1 day-1 for children and adults, respectively. The estimated particulate inhalation values for RME exposure scenarios of Cu were 1.4×10-5 and 7.6×10-6 µg kg-1 day-1 for children and adults, respectively. These values were 1.32×10-4 and 7.19×10-5 µg kg-1 day-1 for Zn. These values were less than the absorbed reference dose of 0.4 and 3 μg kg−1 day−1 for Cu and Zn, respectively.
Conclusion: The hazard quotients (HQ) of individual zinc and copper were less than one. The results showed that there are not any non-carcinogenic health effects through these routes for consumers in the region.

Keywords: Copper, Zinc, hazard quotient, Hazard Index, Mine

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Mine
  • Hazard Quotient
1.ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2003. Toxicological profile for
fluorides, Hydrogen fluoride and Fluorine. Available http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ toxprofiles/
tp11-p.pdf.
2.Barnes, D.G., and Dourson, M. 1988. Reference dose (RfD): description and use in health risk
assessments. Reg. Toxicol Pharm. 8: 471-486.
3.Cabrera, F., Ariza, J.L., Madejón, P., Madejón, E., and Murillo, J.M. 2008. Mercury and other
trace elements in soils affected by the mine tailing spill in Aznalcóllar (SW Spain). Sci. Total
Environ. 390: 311-322.
4.Cai, L.M., Xu, Z.C., Qi, J.Y., Feng, Z.Z., and Xiang, T.S. 2015. Assessment of exposure to
heavy metals and health risks among residents near Tonglushan mine in Hubei, China.
Chemosphere. 127: 127-135.
5.Ferner, D. 2001. Toxicity heavy metals. Med. J. 2: 5. 1-9.
6.Hang, X., Wan, H., Zhou, J., Ma, C., Du, C., and Chen, X. 2009. Risk assessment of
potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice in a typical area of Yangtze River Delta.
Environ Pollut. 157: 2542-2549.
7.Kachenko, A., and Singh, B. 2006. Heavy metals contamination in vegetables grown in urban
and metal smelter contaminated sites in Australia. Water Air Soil Pollut. 169: 101-123.
8.Khan, S., Rehman, S., Khan, Z., and Shah, M. 2010. Soil and vegetables enrichment
with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan, Ecotoxic. Environ.
73: 1820-1827.
9.Kheirabadi, H. 2010. Investigation of heavy metals sources in soil and the risk assessment of
heavy metals in surface soils of Hamadan province to human health. Master's thesis, Faculty
of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. (In Persian)
10.Li, Z.Y., Ma, Z.W., Vander Kuijp, T.J., Yuan, Z.W., and Huang, L. 2014. A review of soil
heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Sci. Total
Environ. 468: 843-853.
11.Liu, H., Probst, A., and Liao, B. 2005. Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the
Chenzhou lead/ zinc mine spill (Hunan, China). Sci. Total Environ. 339: 153-166.
12.Lorico, A., Bertola, A., Baum, C., Fodstad, O., and Rappa, G. 2002. Role of the Multidrug
Resistance Protein 1 in protection from heavy metal oxyanions: investigations in vitro and in
MRP1-deficient mice. Biochem Biophysical Research. 291: 617-622.
13.McLaughlin, M., Parker, R., and Clarke, J. 1999. Metals and micronutrients food safety
issues. Field Crop. Research. 60: 143-163.
14.Mohammadifard, N., Omidvar, N., and Rad, A.H. 2006. Does fruit and vegetable intake
differ in adult females and males in Isfahan. Arya J. 1: 193-201.
15.Pruvot, C., Douay, F., Herv´e, F., and Waterlot, C. 2006. Heavy metals in soil, crops and
grass as a source of human exposure in the former mining areas. J. Soil. Sed. 6: 215-220.
16.Rai, S., Gupta, S., and Mittal, P.C. 2015. Dietary intakes and health risk of toxic and
essential heavy metals through the food chain in agriculture, industrial and coal mining areas
of Northern India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess. 21: 4. 913-933.
17.Tripathi, R.M., Raghunath, R., and Krishnamoorthy, T.M. 1997. Dietary intake of heavy
metals in Bombay city, India. Sci. Total Environ. 208: 149-159.
18.Turkdogan, M., Kilicel, F., Kara, K., Tuncer, I., and Uygan, I. 2002. Heavy metals in soil,
vegetables and fruits in the endemic upper gastrointestinal cancer region of Turkey. Turk. J.
Agr. Crop Sci. 180: 1. 45-52.
19.USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Risk Assessment Guidance for
Superfund. Human Health Evaluation Manual Part A. Office of Health and Environmental
Assessment, Washington, DC.
20.USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Guidelines for exposure assessment.
Available at http://www.epa.gov/ncea/pdfs/guidline.pdf.
21.USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. Exposure Factors Handbook.
National Center for Environmental Assessment. Office of Health and Environmental
Assessment, Washington, DC.
22.USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. Child Specific Exposure Factors
Handbook. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. Volume 1: Human Health Evaluation
Manual (Part A). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC.
23.USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 2004. Risk Assessment Guidance for
Superfund. Volume 1: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E, Supplement Guidance for
Dermal Risk Assessment). Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation,
Washington, DC.
24.WHO (World Health Organization). 1993. Evaluation of certain food additives and
contaminants (41st report of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives).
WHO Tech. Report Series. No. 837.
25.Yeganeh, M. 2012. Modeling the accumulation of heavy metals in surface soils of Hamadan
province and the health risks of metals for human health. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture,
Isfahan University of Technology. (In Persian)
26.Zhuang, P., Li, A., Zou, B., Xia, H., and Wang, G. 2013. Heavy metal contamination in soil
and soybean near the Dabaoshan Mine, South China. Pedosphere. 23: 3. 298-304.
27.Zhou, M., Liao, B., Shu, W., Yang, B., and Lan, C. 2015. Pollution assessment and potential
sources of heavy metals in agricultural soils around four Pb/Zn mines of Shaoguan city,
China. Soil Sediment Contam. 24: 76-89.
28.Zhuang, P., Murray, B., McBride, B., Xiaa, H., Lia, N., and Lia, Z. 2009. Health risk from
heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine, South China.
Sci. Total Environ. 407: 1551-1561.