استفاده از رادیونوکلوئید سزیم-137 در تخمین فرسایش خاک های حوزه آبخیز شصت-کلاته استان گلستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 هیات علمی

3 دانشگاه گلستان

4 کارشناس ارشد فیزیک هسته ای سازمان انرژی اتمی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: فرسایش خاک جدی‌ترین و غیر قابل برگشت‌ترین تهدید برای توسعه پایدار در هر منطقه است. رادیوسزیم در اثر انجام آزمایشات هسته‌ای دهه های گذشته تولید و وارد استراتوسفر شده است و سپس همراه نزولات جوی به سطح زمین رسیده است. اهمیت این رادیونوکلئید در مطالعات فرسایش خاک به دلیل جذب آن توسط بخش رس خاک است به نحوی که به سختی قابل تبادل می‌باشد.
مواد و روشها: به منظور بررسی امکان استفاده از عنصر سزیم-137 برای تخمین فرسایش در خاک‌های جنگلی و غیر جنگلی روی سازند‌های زمین‌شناسی متفاوت، شش منطقه با کاربری جنگل و زراعی در سازند لسی ، ژوراسیک و لس آبرفتی انتخاب و نمونه‌برداری از سطح تا عمق 100 سانتی‌متری خاک صورت گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج گاما اسپکترومتری نمونه‌ها نشان داد که سزیم-137 از سطح تا عمق 40 سانتی‌متر در این خاک‌ها پیشروی نموده است. نتایج حاصل از اندازه گیری لایه به لایه سزیم-137 در این دو نیم‌رخ جنگلی به وضوح بیان‌گر پایداری و عدم بهم خوردگی این نقطه بود چرا که توزیع سزیم-137 با عمق بصورت نمایی کاهش یافت. بیش‌ترین پرتوزایی در نمونه سطحی جنگل لس مشاهده شد. روند توزیع سزیم-137 در نیمرخ جنگل با سازند لس آبرفتی متاثر از رسوب گذاری مواد آبرفتی بود و مقدار آن در نیمرخ متناوباً متغیر بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج میزان سزیم-137 در نمونه‌ها نشان می‌دهد که میزان فرسایش خاک از 16 تا 45 تن در هکتار در سال و در کاربری‌های مطالعاتی متفاوت است. بیش‌ترین میزان فرسایش در اراضی زراعی و کم‌ترین آن در اراضی جنگلی با سازند لس آبرفتی دیده می‌شود. در کل اراضی جنگل مورد مطالعه برای استفاده به عنوان نقاط شاهد دارای محدودیتهای کلی بودند.
سابقه و هدف: فرسایش خاک جدی‌ترین و غیر قابل برگشت‌ترین تهدید برای توسعه پایدار در هر منطقه است. رادیوسزیم در اثر انجام آزمایشات هسته‌ای دهه های گذشته تولید و وارد استراتوسفر شده است و سپس همراه نزولات جوی به سطح زمین رسیده است. اهمیت این رادیونوکلئید در مطالعات فرسایش خاک به دلیل جذب آن توسط بخش رس خاک است به نحوی که به سختی قابل تبادل می‌باشد.
مواد و روشها: به منظور بررسی امکان استفاده از عنصر سزیم-137 برای تخمین فرسایش در خاک‌های جنگلی و غیر جنگلی روی سازند‌های زمین‌شناسی متفاوت، شش منطقه با کاربری جنگل و زراعی در سازند لسی ، ژوراسیک و لس آبرفتی انتخاب و نمونه‌برداری از سطح تا عمق 100 سانتی‌متری خاک صورت گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج گاما اسپکترومتری نمونه‌ها نشان داد که سزیم-137 از سطح تا عمق 40 سانتی‌متر در این خاک‌ها پیشروی نموده است. نتایج حاصل از اندازه گیری لایه به لایه سزیم-137 در این دو نیم‌رخ جنگلی به وضوح بیان‌گر پایداری و عدم بهم خوردگی این نقطه بود چرا که توزیع سزیم-137 با عمق بصورت نمایی کاهش یافت. بیش‌ترین پرتوزایی در نمونه سطحی جنگل لس مشاهده شد. روند توزیع سزیم-137 در نیمرخ جنگل با سازند لس آبرفتی متاثر از رسوب گذاری مواد آبرفتی بود و مقدار آن در نیمرخ متناوباً متغیر بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج میزان سزیم-137 در نمونه‌ها نشان می‌دهد که میزان فرسایش خاک از 16 تا 45 تن در هکتار در سال و در کاربری‌های مطالعاتی متفاوت است. بیش‌ترین میزان فرسایش در اراضی زراعی و کم‌ترین آن در اراضی جنگلی با سازند لس آبرفتی دیده می‌شود. در کل اراضی جنگل مورد مطالعه برای استفاده به عنوان نقاط شاهد دارای محدودیتهای کلی بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Cs-137 radionuclides in estimation of forest soils erosion with different parent material in Shast kalateh region, Golestan province

چکیده [English]

Abstract:
Bachground and objectives: Soil erosion is one of the most serious and irreversible threat for the sustainable development in each region. Cesium has been produced due to nuclear testing in the last decades and entered into the stratosphere, and then comes to the soil by rainfall. These radionuclides have an importance in soil erosion studies because it is absorbed by the clay soil in a way that it is exchanged hardly.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the use of 137Cs in measuring the rate of soil erosion and distribution of sediments in forest and unforest soils and on different parent material. So, six regions (three in forest with loess, Jurassic material, alluvium loess and other in cultivated area) were selected. Samples were taken from surface to 100 cm depth.
Results: Gamma spectrometry results showed the pollution of these soils to Cs. Layer analysis in forest profiles demonstrates stability in exponentially reduced trend. High activity was measured in forest loess area. Cs activities in alluvium loess deposits have changed in different sediment layers.
Conclosion: The results showed that erosion has amount between 16 to 45 ton per hectare per year in different landuses. The highest soil erosion occurred in crop lands and the lowest occurred in forest soils. Forest in study area has major limitations for selecting as a reference point.
Abstract:
Bachground and objectives: Soil erosion is one of the most serious and irreversible threat for the sustainable development in each region. Cesium has been produced due to nuclear testing in the last decades and entered into the stratosphere, and then comes to the soil by rainfall. These radionuclides have an importance in soil erosion studies because it is absorbed by the clay soil in a way that it is exchanged hardly.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the use of 137Cs in measuring the rate of soil erosion and distribution of sediments in forest and unforest soils and on different parent material. So, six regions (three in forest with loess, Jurassic material, alluvium loess and other in cultivated area) were selected. Samples were taken from surface to 100 cm depth.
Results: Gamma spectrometry results showed the pollution of these soils to Cs. Layer analysis in forest profiles demonstrates stability in exponentially reduced trend. High activity was measured in forest loess area. Cs activities in alluvium loess deposits have changed in different sediment layers.
Conclosion: The results showed that erosion has amount between 16 to 45 ton per hectare per year in different landuses. The highest soil erosion occurred in crop lands and the lowest occurred in forest soils. Forest in study area has major limitations for selecting as a reference point.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cs
  • Soil erosion
  • Land use
  • Shastkalateh
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