اثر کاربرد زغال زیستی و سرکه چوب بر مقاومت ‏فروروی و پایداری خاکدانه‏ های خاک زیر کشت ذرت علوفه‏ ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

2 گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

3 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری، شهرکرد. ایران.

4 گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه خوزستان، خوزستان، ایران.

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: برای حفظ کارایی خاک و دستیابی به کشاورزی پایدار استفاده از مواد آلی و اصلاح کننده‏‏ های خاک ضروری است. هدف از این پژوهش، مطالعه تاثیر کاربرد زغال زیستی و سرکه چوب بر مقاومت‏ فروروی و پایداری خاکدانه‏ های خاک زیر کشت ذرت علوفه‏ ای بود. بدین منظور پژوهشی در شرایط گلخانه‏ ای در دانشگاه شهرکرد اجرا گردید.
مواد و روش‏ها: آزمایش به‏ صورت فاکتوریل، در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی شامل 30 تیمار در 3 تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی شامل سرکه چوب در شش مقدار صفر (W0)، 0.2 (W4)،0.1 (W3)، 0.04 (W2)،0.02 (W1) و 0.4(W5) گرم در کیلوگرم (فاکتور اول) و ماده اصلاحی شامل ماده خام (چوب درختان انار و آلو) در دو سطح 1 (B0 1) و 2 (B0 2) درصد جرمی-‏‏‏‏ جرمی و زغال زیستی در دو سطح 1 (B1) و 2 (B 2) درصد جرمی-‏‏‏‏ جرمی (فاکتور دوم) بود. مقاومت‏ فروروی خاک بر روی نمونه‏ های دست نخورده در مکش‏های 0، 10، 50، 100، 500، 1000 و 1500 کیلوپاسکال بوسیله دستگاه فرو‏سنج و میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه‏ ها نیز به ‏وسیله الک خشک اندازه‏ گیری شد.
یافته‏ ها: نتایج نشان داد اثر اصلی کاربرد سرکه چوب و ماده اصلاحی (شامل ماده خام (چوب درختان انار و آلو) و زغال زیستی) و اثر متقابل کاربرد سرکه چوب و ماده اصلاحی (ماده خام و سرکه چوب) بر جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک، پایداری خاکدانه‏ ها و مقاومت‏ فروروی خاک در مکش‏ های 0، 10، ،50، 100 و 500 کیلوپاسکال در سطح احتمال 1درصد معنی‏ دار بود. به‏ طوری که کاربرد سرکه چوب و ماده اصلاحی باعث کاهش جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک و افزایش پایداری خاکدانه‏ ها گردید، بیشترین پایداری خاکدانه مربوط به تیمار W2B2 بود که پایداری خاکدانه‏ ها را 150 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. همچنین کاربرد همزمان سرکه چوب و ماده اصلاحی باعث کاهش مقاومت‏ف روروی خاک شد. به‏ نحوی که در مکش‏ های 0، 10، ،50، 100 و 500 کیلوپاسکال بیشترین کاهش مقاومت‏ فروروی مربوط به تیمار W5B2 بود که به ترتیب مقاومت‏ فروروی خاک 81.70، 82.89، 68.89، 78.65 و 65.59 درصد در مقایسه با شاهد کاهش یافت.
نتیجه‏ گیری: سرکه چوب و زغال زیستی دارای کربن‏آلی بالایی هستند. که به دلیل نقش مواد آلی در افزایش پایداری خاکدانه‏ ها و ایجاد خاکدانه‏ های بزرگتر و افزایش میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه ‏ها در اثر افزایش نیروی چسبندگی بین خاکدانه ‏ها توسط ترکیبات موجود است. بنابراین، زغال زیستی و سرکه چوب از طریق افزایش کربن‏ آلی خاک و کاهش جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک باعث کاهش مقاومت‏ف روروی خاک شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Application of Biochar and Wood Vinegar on Penetration Resistance and Structure Stability of Soil under Forage Corn Cultivation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasrin Karimian 1
  • Shoja GHorbani 2
  • Hamidreza Motaghian 2
  • Ramin Iranipour 3
  • Bijan Khalilimoghaddam 4
1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University . Shahrekord,. Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari, ShahreKord
4 Associate Professor of Soil Science Department, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: The application of organic matter and soil conditioners is essential to maintain soil efficiency and achieve sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of application of biochar and wood vinegar on penetration resistance and stability of soil aggregates under forage corn cultivation.
Materials and methods: For this purpose, a study was conducted in greenhouse conditions at ShahreKord University. The experiment was performed as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with 30 treatments in 3 replications. The studied treatments included wood vinegar in 6 amounts of zero (W0), 0.02 (W1), 0.04 (W2), 0.1 (W3), 0.2 (W4) and 0.4 (W5) g/Kg (first factor) and conditioner including raw material (pomegranate and plum wood) in 2 levels 1 (B01) and 2 (B02) weight-weight percentage and biochar in 2 levels 1 (B1) and 2 (B2) weight-weight percentage (second factor) was applied. Soil penetration resistance of the undisturbed samples at 0, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 1500 Kpa matric suctions by penetrometer and mean weight diameter of aggregates by dry sieving was measured.
Results: The results showed that the main effect of wood vinegar and conditioner (raw material (pomegranate and plum wood) and biochar) application and the interaction effect of wood vinegar and conditioner (raw material (pomegranate and plum wood) and biochar) application on bulk density and aggregate stability and soil penetration resistance at 0,10, 50, 100 and 500 Kpa matric suctions were significant at the level of 1%. The application of wood vinegar and raw material increased bulk density and aggregate stability that the highest aggregate stability was related to W2B2 treatment, which increased the stability of aggregates by150% of the control. Also the application of wood vinegar and raw material increased the reduction of soil penetration resistance. So that at 0, 10, 50, 100 and 500 Kpa matric suctions, the greatest decrease in penetration resistance was related to W5B2 treatment, which soil penetration resistance was observed in 81.7, 82.89, 86.89, 78.65 and 78.65% of the control.
Conclusion: Wood vinegar and biochar has high organic carbon, which is effective in increasing the aggregates stability and creating larger aggregates and increasing mean weight diameter of aggregates and the cause can be attributed to the increase of the bonding force between the aggregates by the compounds in organic matter. Also, biochar and wood vinegar reduced soil penetration resistance by increasing soil organic carbon and reducing soil bulk density.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar
  • Penetration resistance
  • Structure Stability
  • Wood Vinegar
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