بررسی تأثیر دمای گرماکافت و اصلاح شیمیایی بر ویژگی های زغال های زیستی باگاس نیشکر و کاه برنج

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

2 استاد ، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایالم، ایالم، ایران

10.22069/ejsms.2024.21851.2122

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: در سال‌های اخیر با توجه به حجم زیاد پسماندهای کشاورزی، تولید و کاربرد زغال زیستی به‌عنوان یک ماده‌ غنی از کربن در جهت بازیافت بقایای گیاهی، کاهش انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای، حفظ عناصر غذایی و حذف آلاینده‌ها و فلزات سنگین از خاک اهمیت زیادی پیدا کرده است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تأثیر دمای گرماکافت، نوع زیست‌توده و اصلاح با نمک‌های معدنی بر ویژگی‌های زغال‌های زیستی تولید شده انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای انجام پژوهش آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی و با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل نوع زیست‌توده اولیه در 2 نوع (باگاس نیشکر و کاه برنج)، دمای گرماکافت در 2 سطح (300 و 500 درجه سلسیوس) و نوع اصلاح زغال زیستی در 4 مدل (شاهد یا بدون اصلاح، اصلاح‌ با کلریدآهن، کلریدروی و فسفات دی‌هیدروژن پتاسیم) بودند. ابتدا آماده‌سازی زغال‌های زیستی (16 نمونه در 3 تکرار) انجام و سپس ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی آن‌ها اندازه‌گیری و تجزیه و تحلیل شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش دمای گرماکافت در تمام زغال‌های زیستی شاهد و اصلاح شده، میزان خاکستر، کربن تثبیت شده (FC)، هدایت الکتریکی(EC)، اسیدیته (pH)، سطح ویژه (SSA)، محتوای کربن و نسبت C/N افزایش یافت و عملکرد، مواد فرار، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی(CEC)، محتوای اکسیژن و هیدروژن کاهش پیدا کرد. در زغال‌های زیستی کاه برنج (شاهد و اصلاح‌شده) محتوای اکسیژن، نسبت O/C و O+N/C در هر دو دما و مقدار CEC در دمای 500 درجه سلسیوس نسبت به زغال‌های زیستی باگاس نیشکر بیش‌تر و مقدار سطح ویژه آن کم‌تر بود. اصلاح با نمک‌های معدنی باعث افزایش میزان خاکستر، عملکرد، CEC، سطح ویژه، EC، محتوای اکسیژن، نسبت O/C و کاهش pH، میزان کربن، نیتروژن و هیدروژن در زغال‌های زیستی تولید شده در هر دو سطح دما و دو نوع زیست-توده شد. بیش‌ترین مقدار CEC در زغال زیستی باگاس نیشکر تولید شده در دمای 300 درجه سلسیوس اصلاح شده با فسفر (58/94 سانتی‌مول ‌بر کیلوگرم) و بیش‌ترین سطح ویژه در زغال زیستی باگاس نیشکر 500 درجه سلسیوس اصلاح‌شده با آهن (49/94 مترمربع-برگرم) مشاهده گردید. زغال زیستی کاه برنج 500 درجه سلسیوس بدون اصلاح با pH 83/8 بالاترین مقدار pH را داشت و زغال زیستی کاه برنج 500 درجه سلسیوس اصلاح‌‌شده با آهن با EC 23/9 بالاترین میزان EC و نیز بیش‌ترین درصد خاکستر (07/49 درصد) را نسبت به دیگر زغال‌های زیستی نشان دادند. بیش‌ترین کربن تثبیت شده نیز به‌ترتیب مربوط به زغال زیستی باگاس نیشکر 500 درجه سلسیوس بدون اصلاح (4/51 درصد) و زغال زیستی باگاس نیشکر 500 درجه اصلاح‌شده با روی (7/48 درصد) بود. زغال زیستی کاه برنج 300 درجه سلسیوس اصلاح‌شده با آهن، کم‌ترین درصد کربن تثبیت‌شده و بالاترین نسبت H/C، O/C و O+N/C را داشت و در زغال‌های زیستی اصلاح شده با روی تولیدشده در دمای 500 درجه سلسیوس، این نسبت‌ها کم‌ترین مقدار را در مقایسه با زغال‌های زیستی دیگر داشتند که احتمالاً نشان‌دهنده پایداری بیش‌تر آن‌هاست.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که زغال‌های زیستی تولید شده در دمای 300 درجه سلسیوس به‌ویژه انواع اصلاح شده با فسفر و آهن دارای ویژگی‌هایی هستند که پیش‌بینی می‌شود برای حذف آلاینده‌ها از آب و خاک و بهبود حاصلخیزی خاک مناسب باشند و زغال-های زیستی تهیه شده در دمای 500 درجه سلسیوس به‌ویژه انواع اصلاح‌شده با روی ویژگی‌های مورد نیاز برای کاربرد در جهت ترسیب کربن در خاک را دارند. البته برای ارائه نتایج دقیق‌تر، لازم است کارهای پژوهشی بیش‌تری انجام شود. به‌طور کلی استفاده از نمک‌های معدنی برای اصلاح زغال زیستی می‌تواند در بهینه‌سازی ویژگی‌های آن، با توجه به هدف کاربرد، مؤثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the effect of pyrolysis temperature and chemical modification on characteristics of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw biochars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Safoora Jafari 1
  • Abdolamir Moezzi 2
  • Mojtaba Norouzi Masir 3
  • Mahmood Rostaminia 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Professor, Dept. of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Dept. of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz,
4 Associate Prof., Dept. of Water and Soil Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objective: In recent years, due to the large amount of agricultural wastes, the production and use of biochar as a carbon-rich material has become very important in order to recycle plant residues, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, preserve nutrients and remove pollutants and heavy metals from the soil. This research was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of pyrolysis temperature, type of biomass and modification with mineral salts on the characteristics of produced biochars.
Materials and methods: To carry out the research, a factorial experiment was conducted in the form of a completely randomized design with three replications. The experimental factors include the type of feedstock in 2 types (sugarcane bagasse and rice straw), the pyrolysis temperature in 2 levels (300 and 500 ºC) and the type of biochar΄s modification in 4 models (control or without modification, modification with FeCl3, ZnCl2 and KH2PO4). At first, biochars were prepared (16 samples in 3 replicates) and then their physicochemical properties were measured and analyzed.
Results: The results showed that with the increase of pyrolysis temperature in control and all modified biochars, the amount of ash, fixed carbon, electrical conductivity (EC), acidity (pH), specific surface area (SSA), carbon content and C/N ratio increased and yield, volatile matter, cation exchange capacity (CEC), oxygen and hydrogen content decreased. In rice straw biochars (control and modified), oxygen content, O/C and O+N/C ratio at both temperatures and CEC value at 500 ºC are higher than sugarcane bagasse biochars and Its SSA was less. Modification with mineral salts increased the amount of ash, yield, CEC, SSA, EC, oxygen content, O/C ratio and decreases pH, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen content in biochars produced at both temperature levels and two types of biomass. The highest amount of CEC was observed in sugarcane bagasse biochar produced at 300 ºC modified with phosphorus (58.94 cmol.kg-1) and the highest SSA in sugarcane bagasse biochar produced at 500 ºC modified with iron (94.49 m2/kg). The rice straw biochar produced at 500 ºC without modification with a pH of 8.83 had the highest pH value, and the rice straw biochar produced at 500 ºC modified with iron with EC of 9.23 had the highest EC value and the highest percentage of ash (49.07%) compared to other biochars. The most fixed carbon was related to unmodified 500 ºC sugarcane bagasse biochar (51.4%) and 500 ºC sugarcane bagasse biochar modified with zinc (48.7%). Th 300 ºC rice straw biochar modified with iron had the lowest percentage of fixed carbon and the highest ratio of H/C, O/C and O+N/C and in biochar modified with zinc produced at 500 ºC, these ratios had the lowest value compared to other biochars, which probably indicates their greater stability.
Conclusion: The results of this research showed that the biochars produced at 300 ºC, especially the types that modified with phosphorus and iron, have properties that are expected to remove pollutants from water and soil and improve soil fertility, and the biochars prepared at 500 ºC, especially the types that modified with zinc, have the characteristics required for application in order to carbon sequestration in the soil. Of course, more research needs to be done to provide more accurate results. In general, the use of mineral salts to modify biochar can be effective in optimizing its characteristics, according to the purpose of application.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar characteristics
  • pyrolysis temperature
  • feedstock
  • modification
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