عنوان مقاله [English]
Study the effect of peel powder of pomegranate fruit /urea composites on P and Fe uptake content and on grain yield of in corn (zea maize)
Background and Objectives: The use of nitrogen fertilizers to increase crop yield is unavoidable. However, they application have so much environmental problems such as nitrate leaching to underground water and nitrous oxide emission to atmosphere. One of suitable solvent for these problems is the slowing release of urea to soil by compositing it with plant polyphenols. There are several documents that shows plant polyphenols can slow release nitrogen from urea, and therefore can diminish N loss to underground water and atmosphere. In addition, they have positive effect on availability of necessary nutrient elements.
Material and Methods: To study the effect of composite of pomegranate fruit powder rich of polyphenol (PFP)-urea on yield of corn (single cross 704) and P and Fe uptake, a randomized completely block design with 7 treatments and 3 replications was conducted in University of Tehran, college of Aburaihan on 1393. Treatment were included: control (without fertilizer), 180 PFP (kg/ha), 180 urea (kg/ha), 180 PFP + 180 urea (micro-composite by mechanical method or M-PFP/Ur-1) (kg/ha), 180 PFP + 180 urea (micro-composite by chemical method or M-PFP/Ur-2) (kg/ha), 180 PFP + 180 urea (nano-composite by mechanical method or N-PFP/Ur-1) (kg/ha) and 180 PFP + 180 urea (nano-composite by mechanical-chemical or extruder or N-PFP/Ur-1 ) (kg/ha). Grain yield, P and Fe uptake by leaf and grain was also determined at maturity.
Results: The results showed that the urea alone hadn’t significant effect on grain yield but the PFP/Ur composites increased corn yield, Fe uptake by leaf and P concentration in grain compared to control, significantly. The maximum Fe uptake by leaf in amount of 54 mg/m2, occurred in 180 PFP+180 urea treatment (nano-composite by mechanical-chemical or extruder) which had significant difference with control. It seems that use of urea alone could not increase grain yield (according to Liebig rule), but use of polyphenol-rich plant powder could compensate this deficiency, enhanced leaf Fe uptake and therefore, has increased grain yield.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the soil of experiment had so much Fe deficiency that did not response to urea fertilizer alone. But the PFP alone or in the form of PFP/Ur composites via increasing the Fe uptake by leaf and the grain Fe concentration, increase grain yield of corn.