اثر ورمی‌کمپوست غنی‌شده با باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات بر فراهمی فسفر، pH و شاخص‌های زیستی در یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه تهران،

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه تهران،

3 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه تهران،

4 استاد گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کمبود فسفریکی از مشکلات عمده خاک‌های آهکی است. یکی از راه‌های مؤثر و اقتصادی افزایش فراهمی فسفر افزودن کودهای آلی به خاک است. از مطلوب‌ترین مواد آلی و کودهای زیستی موجود، کود ورمی‌کمپوست را می‌توان نام برد اما مصرف زیاد ورمی‌کمپوست برای رسیدن به عملکرد مطلوب و همچنین دارا بودن فسفات‌های نامحلول آلی از محدودیت‌های کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست می‌باشند. یکی از راه‌هایی که محدودیت‌های فوق را تعدیل می‌بخشد و اثربخشی ورمی‌کمپوست را افزایش می‌دهد، غنی‌سازی آن با باکتری‌های محرک رشد گیاه به‌ویژه با باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات می‌باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: نمونه ورمی‌کمپوست در مرکز تحقیقات ورمی‌کمپوست دانشگاه تهران تهیه شد. تعداد 18 جدایه که دارای توان انحلال فسفات‌های نامحلول معدنی و آلی بودند جداسازی گردید و درنهایت دو جدایه B53 و B22 که دارای توان بالای انحلال فسفات نامحلول بودند خالص‌سازی و شناسایی شد. آزمایش انکوباسیون در قالب طرح اسپیلیت پلات بر مبنای زمان به‌منظور بررسی غنی‌سازی ورمی‌کمپوست با باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات بر افزایش فراهمی فسفر قابل‌دسترس، pH و شاخص های زیستی شامل: تنفس میکروبی، فعالیت آنزیم های فسفاتاز قلیایی و دهیدروژناز، در گلدان‌های حاوی 4 کیلوگرم خاک با 5 تیمار شامل T1: ورمی‌کمپوست (6%) + (B53)؛ T2: ورمی‌کمپوست (6%)+ (B22)؛ T3: شاهد مثبت (کود سوپر فسفات تریپل به میزان 50 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم)؛ T4: ورمی‌کمپوست (6%) و T5: شاهد منفی (خاک بدون ورمی‌کمپوست و باکتری) در 3 تکرار طراحی و اجرا گردید و در زمان‌ها شروع انکوباسیون و 30 روز پس از آن، اثر تیمارها بر مقدار فسفر قابل‌دسترس، pH و شاخص‌های زیستی اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاصل از توالی ژنی 16S rRNA نشان دادند که جدایه شماره 22 با 99 درصد شباهت به گونه Serratia marcescens و جدایه شماره 53 با 98 درصد شباهت به گونه Pseudomonas aeruqinosa تعلق دارند. نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از ورمی‌کمپوست غنی‌شده با باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات (T1 و T2) نسبت به تیمار شاهد (T4) سبب افزایش معنی‌دار فسفر قابل‌دسترس (به ترتیب 59 و 100 درصد)، تنفس میکروبی خاک (58 و 61 درصد)، فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز قلیایی (34 و 41 درصد)، فعالیت آنزیم دهیدروژناز (103 و 133 درصد) و کاهش pH (70/4 و 40/5 درصد) گردید. با توجه به نتایج نهایی هر دو باکتری توانستند شاخص‌های زیستی و فراهمی فسفر را افزایش دهند.
نتیجه‌گیری: کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست غنی‌شده با باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات (T1 و T2) سبب افزایش فراهمی فسفر قابل‌دسترس، تنفس میکروبی، فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز قلیایی، فعالیت آنزیم دهیدروژناز و کاهش pH خاک شد این در حالی است که تیمار غنی‌شده با باکتری Serratia marcescens (T2) توانایی بیشتری در افزایش فراهمی فسفر و شاخص‌های زیستی داشت. نتایج نشان داد که غنی‌سازی ورمی‌کمپوست با باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات می‌تواند جایگزین مناسبی برای کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی فسفات و به‌عنوان یک استراتژی مناسب در مدیریت بهتر ورمی‌کمپوست در خاک‌های آهکی در آینده باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of vermicompost enriched with phosphate solubilizing bacteria on phosphorus availability, pH and biological indices in a calcareous soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • faezeh parastesh 1
  • Hoseinali Alikhani 2
  • Hassan Etesami 3
  • Mohammad reza Hasandokht 4
1 Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Tehran university
3 Department of Soil Science, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: The shortage of phosphorus is one of the major problems of calcareous soils. One of the most effective and economical ways to increase phosphorus availability is through the addition of organic fertilizers. Vermicompost is the most desirable organic material and bio fertilizers, but the high usage of vermicompost to achieve optimal performance and the presence of organic insoluble phosphates are limited the use of vermicompost. One of the best way is that enriched vermicompost with plant growth-promoting bacteria, especially phosphate solubilizing bacteria.
Materials and Methods: Vermicompost sample was produced in Vermicompost Research Center of Tehran University. 18 isolates with ability of organic and inorganic phosphate solubilizing were isolated. Finally, two isolates 53 and 22 which had high solubilizing capacity of inorganic and organic insoluble phosphate were purified and identified. An incubation experiment was conducted in the Split plot design based on time to investigate the enrichment of vermicompost with phosphate solubilizing bacteria on available phosphorus, pH, microbial respiration, alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activity in pots with 4 kg of soil consist of 5 treatments, including T1: vermicompost (6%) + B53; T2: vermicompost (6%) + B22; T3: positive control (Triple superphosphate fertilizer at 50 mg/kg); T4: vermicompost (6%) and T5: negative control (soil without vermicompost and bacteria), in 3 replicates. The treatments were incubated for 30 days and after incubation, the effect of treatments on phosphorus availability, pH and biological indices was measured.
Results: The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified isolate 22 as Serratia marcescens with 99% similarity and isolate 53 as Pseudomonas aeruqinosa with 98% similarity. the use of vermicompost enriched with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (T1 and T2) increased available phosphorus (59.2% and 100%), microbial respiration (58% and 61%), Alkaline phosphatase activity (34 and 41%) and dehydrogenase activity (102.6% and 13.7%) significantly compared to control treatment (T4), but reduced pH (4.7% and 4.4%). According to the results, bacterial enriched treatment Serratia marcescens (T2) was more able to increase phosphorus and biological indices.
Conclusion: The application of vermicompost enriched with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (T1 and T2) cusses increase of the available phosphorus, microbial respiration, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and dehydrogenase activity and soil pH reduction. The treatment enriched with Serratia marcescens (T2) had more ability to increasing phosphorus availability and biological index. The results showed that vermicompost enrichment with phosphate solubilizing bacteria can be a suitable alternative for reducing the use of phosphate fertilizers and as a suitable strategy for better vermicompost management in calcareous soils in the future.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alkaline phosphatase enzyme
  • Dehydrogenase enzyme
  • Serratia marcescens
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
1.Adesemoye, A.O., and Kloepper, J.W. 2009. Plant–microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 85: 1. 1-12.
2.Alexander, D., and Zuberer, D. 1993. Responses by iron-efficient and inefficient oat cultivars to inoculation with siderophore-producing bacteria in a calcareous soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 16: 2. 118-124.
3.Aparna, B. 2000. The Thesis. Distribution, characterization and dynamics of soil enzymes in selected soils of Kerala. Kerala Agricultural University; 361p.
4.Balota, E.L., Kanashiro, M., Colozzi Filho, A., Andrade, D.S., and Dick, R.P. 2004. Soil enzyme activities under
long-term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems. Brazil. J. Microbiol. 35: 4. 300-306.
5.Banik, S., and Dey, B.K. 1982. Available phosphate content of an alluvial soil as influenced by inoculation of some isolated phosphate-solubilizing micro-organisms. Plant and Soil. 69: 3. 353-364.
6.Barahimi, N., Afyuni, M., Karami, M., and Rezaee Nejad, Y. 2009. Cumulative and residual effects of organic amendments on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in soil and wheat. J. Water Soil Sci. 12: 46. 803-812.
7.Bergstrom, D., Monreal, C., and King, D. 1998. Sensitivity of soil enzyme activities to conservation practices. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 62: 5. 1286-1295.
8.Busato, J.G., Lima, L.S., Aguiar, N.O., Canellas, L.P., and Olivares, F.L. 2012. Changes in labile phosphorus forms during maturation of vermicompost enriched with phosphorus-solubilizing and diazotrophic bacteria. Bioresource Technology. 110: 390-395.
9.Chaoui, H.I., Zibilske, L.M., and Ohno, T. 2003. Effects of earthworm casts and compost on soil microbial activity and plant nutrient availability. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 35: 2. 295-302.
10.Chapman, H. 1965. Cation-exchange capacity, Methods of soil analysis. Ca Black et all edition. Pp: 891-901.
11.Chapman, H.D., and Pratt, P.F. 1962. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. Soil Science. Pp: 68-93.
12.Chen, S.K., Edwards, C.A., and Subler, S. 2003. The influence of two agricultural biostimulants on nitrogen transformations, microbial activity, and plant growth in soil microcosms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 35: 1. 9-19.
13.Del Bubba, M., Arias, C., and Brix, H. 2003. Phosphorus adsorption maximum of sands for use as media in subsurface flow constructed reed beds as measured by the Langmuir isotherm. Water Research. 37: 14. 3390-3400.
14.Ding, W., Meng, L., Yin, Y., Cai, Z., and Zheng, X. 2007. CO2 emission in an intensively cultivated loam as affected by long-term application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 39: 2. 669-679.
15.Dobbelaere, S., Vanderleyden, J., and Okon, Y. 2003. Plant growth-promoting effects of diazotrophs in the rhizosphere. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences.22: 2. 107-149.
16.Edwards, U., Rogall, T., Blöcker,H., Emde, M., and Böttger, E.C.1989. Isolation and direct complete nucleotide determination of entire genes. Characterization of a gene coding for 16S ribosomal RNA. Nucleic Acids Research. 17: 19. 7
17.Emami, S., Alikhani, H.A., Pourbabaei, A.A., Etesami, H., Motashare Zadeh, B., and Sarmadian, F. 2018. Improved growth and nutrient acquisition of wheat genotypes in phosphorus deficient soils by plant growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 64: 6. 719-727.
18.Garcia, C., Hernandez, T., and Costa, F. 1997. Potential use of dehydrogenase activity as an index of microbial activity in degraded soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis.28: 1-2. 123-134.
19.Gee, G.W., and Bauder, J.W. 1986. Particle-size analysis. A. Klute edition. ASA and SSSA. Pp: 383-411.
20.Ghoularata, M., Raeisi, F., and Nadian, H.E. 2008. Salinity and phosphorus interactions on growth, yield and nutrient uptake by berseem clover (trifolium alexandrinum). Iran. J. Field Crop Res. 6: 1. 117-126.
21.Glickmann, E., and Dessaux, Y. 1995. A critical examination of the specificity of the salkowski reagent for indolic compounds produced by phytopathogenic bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 61: 2. 793-796.
22.Gupta, M., Kiran, S., Gulati, A., Singh, B., and Tewari, R. 2012. Isolation and identification of phosphate solubilizing bacteria able to enhance the growth and aloin-A biosynthesis of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Microbiological Research. 167: 
23.Jalali, M., and Jalali, M. 2016. Relation between various soil phosphorus extraction methods and sorption parameters in calcareous soils with different texture. Science of the Total Environment. 566: 1080-1093.
24.Karagöz, P., Rocha, I.V., Özkan, M., and Angelidaki, I. 2012. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by same vessel saccharification and co-fermentation. Bioresource Technology. 104: 
25.Khan, M.S., Zaidi, A., Wani, P.A., Ahemad, M., and Oves, M. 2009. Functional Diversity Among Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria: Current Status. P 105-132. In: M. Khan, A. Zaidi, and J. Musarrat (eds.) Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
26.Kumar, A., Prakash, C.B., Brar, N.S., and Kumar, B. 2018. Potential of Vermicompost for Sustainable Crop Production and Soil Health Improvement in Different Cropping Systems. Inter. J. Current Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 7: 10. 1042-1055.
27.Kumar, V., and Singh, K. 2001. Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Bioresource Technology.76: 2. 173-175.
28.Lazcano, C., Gómez-Brandón, M., and Domínguez, J. 2008. Comparison of the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting for the biological stabilization of cattle manure. Chemosphere. 72: 7. 1013-1019.
29.Liang, Y., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Shen, Q., Zhou, J., and Yang, L. 2003. Soil enzymatic activity and growth of rice and barley as influenced by organic manure in an anthropogenic soil. Geoderma. 115: 1-2. 149-160.
30.Liu, F.P., Liu, H.Q., Zhou, H.L., Dong, Z.G., Bai, X.H., Bai, P., and Qiao, J.J. 2014. Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from betel nut (Areca catechu) and their effects on plant growth and phosphorus mobilization in tropical soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 50: 6. 927-937.
31.Lu, H., Feng, Y., Wu, Y., Yang, L.,and Shao, H. 2016. Phototrophic periphyton techniques combine phosphorous removal and recovery for sustainable salt-soil zone. Science of the Total Environment. 568: 838-844.
32.Lukashe, N.S., Mupambwa, H.A., Green, E., and Mnkeni, P.N.S. 2019. Inoculation of fly ash amended vermicompost
with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and its influence on vermi-degradation, nutrient release and biological activity. Waste Management. 83: 14-22.
33.Mahdi, S., Hassan, G., Hussain, A., and Rasool, F. 2011. Phosphorus availability issue-its fixation and role of phosphate solubilizing bacteria in phosphate solubilization. Res. J. Agric. Sci.2: 1. 174-179.
34.Mander, C., Wakelin, S., Young, S., Condron, L., and O’Callaghan, M. 2012. Incidence and diversity of phosphate-solubilising bacteria are linked to phosphorus status in grassland soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 44: 1. 93-101.
35.Marinari, S., Masciandaro, G., Ceccanti, B., and Grego, S. 2007. Evolution of soil organic matter changes using pyrolysis and metabolic indices: a comparison between organic and mineral fertilization. Bioresource Technology. 98: 13. 2495-2502.
36.Martens, D., Johanson, J., and Frankenberger, W. 1992. Production and persistence of soil enzymes with repeated addition of organic residues. Soil Science. 153: 1. 53-61.
37.McConnell, D.B., Shiralipour, A., and Smith, W.H. 1993. Compost application improves soil properties. BioCycle.
34: 4. 61-66.
38.Medina, E., Paredes, C., Bustamante, M., Moral, R., and Moreno-Caselles, J. 2012. Relationships between soil physico-chemical, chemical and biological properties in a soil amended with spent mushroom substrate. Geoderma. 173: 152-161.
39.Meena, B.P., Kumar, A., Lal, B., Meena, R.L., Shirale, A., Dotaniya, M., and Ram, A. 2019. Sustainability of Popcorn-Potato Cropping System Improves Due to Organic Manure Application and Its Effect on Soil Health. Potato Research. 62: 253. 1-
40.Mehta, S., and Nautiyal, C.S. 2001. An efficient method for qualitative screening of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Current Microbiology. 43: 1. 51-56.
41.Mkhabela, M., and Warman, P. 2005. The influence of municipal solid waste compost on yield, soil phosphorus  availability and uptake by two vegetable crops grown in a Pugwash sandy loam soil in Nova Scotia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment.106: 1. 57-67.
42.Mupambwa, H.A., Ravindran, B., and Mnkeni, P.N.S. 2016. Potential of effective micro-organisms and Eisenia fetida in enhancing vermi-degradation and nutrient release of fly ash incorporated into cow dung–paper waste mixture. Waste Management. 48: 165-173.
43.Nain, L., Rana, A., Joshi, M., Jadhav, S. D., Kumar, D., Shivay, Y., . . . Prasanna, R. 2010. Evaluation of synergistic effects of bacterial and cyanobacterial strains as biofertilizers for wheat. Plant and Soil. 331: 1-2. 217-230.
44.Nannipieri, P., Giagnoni, L., Landi,L., and Renella, G. 2011. Role of Phosphatase Enzymes in Soil. P 215-243. In: E. Bünemann, A. Oberson, and E. Frossard (eds.) Phosphorus in Action. Soil Biology, vol 26. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
45.Nannipieri, P., Giagnoni, L., Renella, G., Puglisi, E., Ceccanti, B., Masciandaro, G., and Marinari, S. 2012. Soil enzymology: classical and molecular approaches. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 48: 7. 743-762.
46.Navnage, N., Patle, P., and Ramteke, P. 2018. Dehydrogenase activity (DHA): Measure of total microbial activity and as indicator of soil quality. Inter. J. Chem. Stud. 6: 1. 456-458.
47.Nelson, D., and Sommers, L.E. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. P 539-579 In: D.L. Sparks, A.L. Page, P.A. Helmke, R.H. Loeppert, P.N. Soltanpour, M.A. Tabatabai, C.T. Johnston, M.E. Sumner (eds). Chemical and microbiological properties. America.
48.Nelson, R. 1982. Carbonate and gypsum. P 181-197. In: S. Segoe and Rd, Madison (eds) Chemical and microbiological properties. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA.
49.Öhlinger, R. 1996. Dehydrogenase activity with the substrate TTC. P 241-243. In: Schinner, F., Öhlinger, R., Kandeler, E., Margesin, R. (eds). methods in soil biology. Springer Verlag, BerlinHeidelberg.
50.Olsen, S.R. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate
(No. 939). US Department of Agriculture.‏
51.Onireti, O.O., Lin, C., and Qin, J. 2017. Combined effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on mobilization
of arsenic and lead from multi-contaminated soils. Chemosphere.170: 161-168.
52.Page, A., Miller, R., and Keeney,D. 1982. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy, No. 9. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, 1159p.
53.Patten, C.L., and Glick, B.R. 1996. Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Can. J. Microbiol. 42: 3. 207-220.
54.Pérez-Miranda, S., Cabirol, N., George-Téllez, R., Zamudio-Rivera, L.,and Fernández, F. 2007. O-CAS, a fast and universal method for siderophore detection. J. Microbiol. Method.70: 1. 127-131.
55.Perucci, P. 1992. Enzyme activity and microbial biomass in a field soil amended with municipal refuse. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 14: 1. 54-60.
56.Pramanik, P., Ghosh, G., Ghosal, P., and Banik, P. 2007. Changes in organic–C, N, P and K and enzyme activities in vermicompost of biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculants. Bioresource Technology.98: 13. 2485-2494.
 57.Premono, M.E., Moawad, A., and Vlek, P. 1996. Effect of phosphate-solubilizing Pseudomonas putida on the growth of maize and its survival in the rhizosphere. Indonesi. J. Crop Sci. 11: 1. 13-2.
58.Ranamukhaarachchi, S.L. 2009. Soil dehydrogenase in a land degradation-rehabilitation gradient: observations from a savanna site with a wet/dry seasonal cycle. Revista de Biologia Tropical. 57: 1-2. 223-234.
59.Richardson, A.E. 2001. Prospects for using soil microorganisms to improve the acquisition of phosphorus by plants. Functional Plant Biology. 28: 9. 897-906.
60.Rodriguez, H., Gonzalez, T., Goire, I., and Bashan, Y. 2004. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp. Naturwissenschaften. 91: 11. 552-555.
61.Ros, M., Hernandez, M.T., and Garcı́a, C. 2003. Soil microbial activity after restoration of a semiarid soil by organic amendments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 35: 3. 463-469.
62.Rossini-Oliva, S., Mingorance, M., &and Peña, A. 2017. Effect of two different composts on soil quality and on the growth of various plant species in a polymetallic acidic mine soil. Chemosphere. 168: 183-190.
63.Roy, S., Suchismita, C., and Mukherjee, S. 2007. Biological control of Phytophthora spp. with a novel indigenous Pseudomonas isolate. J. Mycopathol. Res. 45: 1. 117-121.
64.Scervino, J.M., Mesa, M.P., Della Mónica, I., Recchi, M., Moreno, N.S., and Godeas, A. 2010. Soil fungal isolates produce different organic acid patterns involved in phosphate salts solubilization. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 46: 7. 755-763.
65.Sergeeva, E., Liaimer, A., and Bergman, B. 2002. Evidence for production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid by cyanobacteria. Planta. 215: 2. 229-238.
66.Sharma, S.B., Sayyed, R.Z., Trivedi, M.H., and Gobi, T.A. 2013. Phosphate solubilizing microbes: sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils. Springer Plus. 2: 1. 587.
67.Sperber, J.I. 1958. The incidence of apatite-solubilizing organisms in the rhizosphere and soil. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 9: 6. 778-781.
68.Tabatabai, M. 1982. Soil enzymes,P 903-947. In: R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA.
69.Taktek, S., Trépanier, M., Servin, P.M., St-Arnaud, M., Piché, Y., Fortin, J.A., and Antoun, H. 2015. Trapping of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on hyphae of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 90: 1-9.
70.Taylor, J., Wilson, B., Mills, M.S., and Burns, R.G. 2002. Comparison of microbial numbers and enzymatic activities in surface soils and subsoils using various techniques. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 34: 3. 387-401.
71.Tejada, M., and Gonzalez, J. 2006. The relationships between erodibility and erosion in a soil treated with two organic amendments. Soil and Tillage Research. 91: 1-2. 186-198.
72.Thangasamy, A., Gorrepati, K., Ahammed, T.S., Savalekar, R.K., Banerjee, K., and Chavan, M.K. 2018. Comparison of organic and conventional farming for onion yield, biochemical quality, soil organic carbon, and microbial population. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 64: 2. 219-230.
73.van de Wiel, C.C., van der Linden, C.G., and Scholten, O.E. 2016. Improving phosphorus use efficiency in agriculture: opportunities for breeding. Euphytica. 207: 1. 1-22.
74.Wei, Y., Wei, Z., Cao, Z., Zhao,Y., Zhao, X., Lu, Q., and Zhang, X. 2016. A regulating method for the distribution of phosphorus fractions based on environmental parameters related to the key phosphate-solubilizing bacteria during composting. Bioresource Technology. 211: 610-617.
75.Wei, Y., Zhao, Y., Shi, M., Cao, Z., Lu, Q., Yang, T., and Wei, Z. 2018. Effect of organic acids production and bacterial community on the possible mechanism of phosphorus solubilization during composting with enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation. Bioresource Technology. 247: 190-199.
76.Zhang, J., Zeng, G., Chen, Y., Yu,M., Yu, Z., Li, H., and Huang, H.2011. Effects of physico-chemical parameters on the bacterial and fungal communities during agricultural waste composting. Bioresource Technology. 102: 3. 2950-2956.
77.Zhao, F., Zhang, Y., Dijkstra, F.A.,Li, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang, T., and Yang, L. 2019. Effects of amendments on phosphorous status in soils with different phosphorous levels. Catena. 172: 97-103.