نقش کربن آلی در معدنی شدن نیتروژن، کربن و غلظت برخی عناصر غذایی در یک خاک شور

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه و مربی گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور،

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه،

3 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه،

4 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: خاک‌های تحت تأثیر نمک، توزیع گسترده‌ای در نواحی خشک و نیمه نیمه‌خشک از جمله ایران دارند. در خاک‌های تحت تأثیر نمک، تغییرات فیزیکی، شیمیائیشیمیایی و بیولوژیکی و نیز پائین بودن مقدار مواد آلی در نتیجه رشد ضعیف گیاه، سبب کمبود عناصر غذائیغذایی مثل مانند نیتروژن و سمیت یونی (سدیم و کلر) می‌شود. ناچیز بودن پوشش گیاهی در نواحی خشک و شور سبب می‌شود که بقایای گیاهی کمتری وارد خاک شده و با کاهش مقدار مواد آلی خاک، کم بوده و این امر به کمبود نیتروژن و دیگر عناصر منجر می‌شودغذایی رخ دهد. یکی از راه‌های تأمین و افزایش کارائی عناصر برای گیاه در شرایط شور، استفاده از ترکیبات با منشأا آلی است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی اثر سطوح کربن آلی و شوری بر معدنی شدن نیتروژن، کربن و غلظت عناصر غذائیغذایی در خاک بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایشی برای بررسی اثر سطوح کربن آلی از منبع کود گاوی بر معدنی شدن کربن و نیتروژن و غلظت عناصر غذائیغذایی در شرایط شوری خاک در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی (CRD) به صورت فاکتوریل با سه تکرار انجام گرفت. فاکتور کود دامی جهت ایجاد سطوح کربن آلی شامل (سطح بدون کربن آلی، سطح 5/1 و سطح 3 درصد کربن آلی) و فاکتور شوری شامل (شوری 5/1، 5/4 و 9 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) بود. جهت ایجاد سطوح شوری ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ از ﻧﻤﻚ ﻫﺎی MgSO4.7H2O،NaCl ، Na2SO4 و CaCl2 ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‌های 82/41، 91/0، 36/20، 91/36 مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. مخلوط حاصل برای هر تیمار جداگانه به ظروف پلی پلی‌اتیلنی انتقال یافته و در یک دوره 70 روزه، تحت دمای 25 درجه سانتیگراد سلسیوس و رطوبت 70 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه به صورت انکوباسیون قرار داده شدگردید. در طول زمان انکوباسیون در زمان‌های 0، 2، 4، 6، 8، و 10 هفته بعد پس از شروع انکوباسیون (به منظور پی بردن به میزان نیترات‌سازی با زمان) از هر کدام از تیمارهای آزمایشی نمونه‌برداری شده و مقدار آمونیوم و نیترات نمونه‌ها اندازه‌گیری شد. برای بررسی معدنی شدن کربن، از شروع آزمایش هر هفته مقدار تنفس پایه برآورد گردید. در پایان آزمایش مقدار عناصر پر مصرف و کم کم‌مصرف اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که اثر شوری بر غلظت پتاسیم، سدیم و کلر محلول، غلظت کلسیم، منیزیم و آهن (قابل جذب)، نیترات، آمونیوم و تنفس پایه (p <0.001) معنی‌دار بود. اثر کربن آلی بر غلظت کربن آلی و نیتروژن کل خاک، غلظت پتاسیم، سدیم و کلر محلول، آهن قابل جذب، نیترات، آمونیوم و تنفس پایه (p <0.001) معنی‌دار بود. اعمال شوری 9 دسی زیمنس بر متر تنفس پایه، تولید آمونیم و نیترات را به ترتیب 47، 27 و 76 درصد کاهش داد. اما افزودن 3 درصد کربن آلی به خاک پارامترهای فوق را به ترتیب 24، 10 و 37 درصد افزایش داد. اثرات متقابل کربن آلی و شوری بر غلظت سدیم و کلر محلول و آهن قابل جذب (p <0.05)، غلظت پتاسیم محلول و تنفس پایه (p <0.01) و غلظت نیترات و آمونیوم (p <0.001) معنی‌دار بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: شوری اثر پیامدی منفی بر فرایند معدنی شدن کربن و نیتروژن داشت. کاربرد ترکیبات آلی توانست با ایجاد تعادل در وضعیت عناصر غذائیغذایی شرایط مناسب‌تری را برای فرایندهای معدنی شدن کربن و نیتروژن ایجاد کند. ترکیبات آلی ممکن است یک منبع آسان کربن داشته باشند که در صورت قرارگیری در خاک، باعث سبب تحریک و افزایش فعالیت میکروبی شده و تا حدودی معدنی شدن کربن و نیتروژن را افزایش می دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Organic Carbon in the Mineralization of Nitrogen, Carbon and Some of Nutrient Concentrations in Soil Salinity Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Salahedin Moradi 1
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 2
  • Ebrahim Sepehr 3
  • Habib Khodaverdiloo 3
  • Mohsen Barin 4
1 Payame Noor University
2 University of Urmia
3 University of Urmia
4 University of Urmia
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: The salt-affected soils are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid areas including Iran. In the soils affected by excessive salt, physical, chemical and biological changes in coupling with the low levels of organic matter (OM) resulting from the weak growth of plants, cause the deficiency of such nutrients as nitrogen (N) on the one hand and ionic toxicity (sodium and chlorine) on the other hand. The lack of vegetation in arid and saline areas results in the return of small amount of plant residues, so that the content of soil organic matter and thus the amount of nitrogen and other elements is reduced. One of the ways to increase the vitality and efficiency of elements in saline conditions for plants is to use organic fertilizers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic carbon and salinity levels on nitrogen and carbon mineralization and nutrient concentrations in soil.
Materials and methods: An completely randomized design (CRD) experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of organic carbon levels from the source of cow manure on the mineralization of carbon and nitrogen and nutrient concentrations in soil salinity conditions in a completely randomized design (CRD) by factorial arrangement with three replications. Organic carbon factor included (0, 1.5 and 3% organic carbon) and salinity factor consisted of 1.5, 4.5 and 9 dS/m. To create salinity levels a combination of MgSO4.7H2O, NaCl, Na2SO4 and CaCl2 was used in the ratio of 42.82, 0.91, 36.20, and 36.91, respectively. The treated soils were incubated at 25 °C under 70% field capacity for 70-day period. To determine the nitrification rate (Rn), the ammonium and nitrate concentrations were monitored during the incubation period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks since the time of incubation. To address the carbon mineralization rate, the soil basal respiration was determined weekly since the beginning of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the macro and micro nutrient status was determined in the treated soils.
Results: The results showed that both salinity and organic matter application significantly affected the basal respiration, concentration of ammonium, nitrate, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, Fe (p < 0.01). Salinity increased soil Ca and Mg concentration. Organic carbon treatments have a significant effect on soil total nitrogen and soil organic carbon. The interactional effect of organic matter and salinity was significant on the basal respiration concentration of ammonium and nitrate and K, Na, Cl, Fe. Salinity in 9 dS.m-1 level compare to 1.5 dS.m-1 decreased basal respiration, NH4+ and NO3- concentration by 47%, 27% and 76% respectively. The basal respiration in 3% of soil organic carbon treatment, higher by 24% compared to control treatment (without organic matter addition). Furthermore, the ammonium and nitrate production after 70 days in 3% of soil organic carbon treatment, was 10% and 37% more than control.
Conclusion: Salinity had a negative effect on the process of carbon and nitrogen mineralization. The use of organic compounds, by creating a balance in nutrient status, could create more favorable conditions for the processes of mineralization of carbon and nitrogen. Organic compounds may have an easy source of carbon, which, if placed on the soil, stimulate and increase microbial activity, increase the mineralization of carbon and nitrogen to some extent.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • carbon
  • Nitrogen
  • Nutrient
  • Salinity
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