اثر بازدارنده 3 و 4 دی‌متیل پیرازول فسفات (DMPP) بر نیترات سازی و فراوانی باکتری‌های نیترات ساز در پنج نوع خاک مختلف

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه تهران،

3 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه تهران،

4 استادیار بخش خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، آذربایجان غربی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کارایی پایین استفاده از کود‌های نیتروژن یک مشکل جهانی در تولید محصول است و کشاورزی ایران نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نیست. کودهای نیتروژنی به عنوان منبع نیتروژن، در آلودگی خاک، آب و هوای محیط زیست تاثیر گذار هستند. نیترات سازی یک فرایند کلیدی در اکوسیستم های کشاورزی است چرا که تبدیل آمونیوم به نیترات میتواند منجر به از دست دادن بخش قابل توجهی از نیتروژن خاک از طریق آبشویی و یا نیترات زدایی شود. استفاده از بازدارنده‌های نیترات‌سازی همراه کود نیتروژن به منظور کنترل این فرایند یکی از راهکارهای کاهش هدرروی نیتروژن است. بنابراین این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر بازدارنده 3 و 4 دی‌متیل پیرازول فسفات (DMPP) بر میزان نیترات سازی و درصد بازدارندگی آن در برخی خاکهای ایران صورت گرفت.
مواد و روشها: یک آزمایش گرماگذاری به منظور بررسی اثر DMPP بر روند تغییر غلظت نیترات و آمونیوم در فواصل زمانی مختلف و فراوانی باکتری‌های اکسید کننده آمونیوم (AOB) و نیتریت (NOB) در پنج خاک‌ مختلف انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل بازدارنده نیترات سازی (NI) در سه سطح (بدون کاربرد نیتروژن و NI، mg/kg 200 نیتروژن از منبع سولفات آمونیوم بدون NI، و mg/kg 200 نیتروژن از منبع سولفات آمونیوم حاوی 8/0 درصد NI)، پنج نوع خاک (لوم شنی 1 با 58/0 درصد کربن آلی، لوم شنی 2 با 3/0 درصد کربن آلی، لوم با 73/0 درصد کربن آلی، لوم رسی با 87/0 درصد کربن آلی، و رسی با 47/1 درصد کربن آلی) و پنج زمان نمونه برداری (0، 14، 28، 42، و 56 روز) بود.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد در همه خاک‌ها کاربرد نیتروژن همراه DMPP نسبت به نیتروژن بدون DMPP اثر معنی‌داری (p <0.001) بر کاهش میزان نیترات سازی داشت به طوریکه میزان آن را به طور میانگین 7/44 درصد کاهش داد. کارایی DMPP در کاهش نیترات سازی در خاک های مورد آزمایش با هم اختلاف معنی داری داشت . نیترات سازی در خاک‌های دارای رس و کربن آلی بیشتر نسبت به خاک‌های دارای شن بیشتر و ماده آلی کمتر سریع تر اتفاق افتاد. درصد بازدارندگی نیترات بعد از 56 روز گرماگذاری در خاک‌های لوم شنی 1 و 2 و لومی به ترتیب 57، 46 و 12 درصد بود ولی برای دو خاک دیگر نزدیک به صفر بود. همچنین یک همبستگی مثبت معنی دار بین تعداد باکتری های AOB و NOB با غلظت نیترات (6/0 = r)، مقدار کربن آلی (9/0 = r)، و نیتروژن کل خاک (9/0 = r) وجود داشت.
نتیجه گیری: می توان اظهار نمود که میزان نیترات سازی خاک تحت تأثیر عواملی مانند بافت و مقدار ماده آلی خاک متفاوت است و کارایی DMPP با برخی ویژگی ها مانند درصد رس، محتوای کربن آلی و جمعیت باکتری های نیترات ساز خاک رابطه عکس دارد. بعلاوه این خصوصیات در پیش بینی اثرات کوتاه مدت بازدارنده می تواند مورد استفاده قرار گیرد

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nitrification and abundance of nitrifier bacterial as effected by inhibitor 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) in five different soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • jamal Sheikhi 1
  • Hossein Mirseyed Hosseini 2
  • Hassan Etessami 3
  • Aziz Majidi 4
1 Soil science Department, Tehran University
2 soil science, Tehran university
3 Soil Science, Tehran University
4 Department of soil and water, West Azerbaijan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources Center, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a global problem in crop production, and agriculture of Iran is not exempt in this regard. Nitrogen (N) fertilizers as a source of nitrogen can be very effective in water, soil and air environmental pollution. Nitrification is a key process in agricultural ecosystems since it results in changes of ammonium to nitrate and eventually loss of considerable amounts of soil nitrogen through leaching and denitrification. The application of nitrification inhibitors (NI) together with nitrogen fertilizers is a strategy to reduce N losses. Thus, the objective of this study were to evaluate the effect of inhibitor 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on nitrification rates and nitrification inhibition percentage in some soils of Iran containing representing differences in organic matter content and texture.
Materials and Methods: An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of DMPP on nitrate and ammonium concentration changes in different times and abundance of ammonium (AOB) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizer bacteria in five soils with different texture and organic carbon (O.C). The treatments of experiment included NI at three levels (without N and NI, 200 mg/kg N as ammonium sulfate without NI, and 200 mg/kg N as ammonium sulfate containing 0.8 % NI), five soil types (sandy loam 1 with 0.58% O.C, sandy loam 2 with 0.3% O.C, loam with 0.73% O.C, clay loam with 0.87% O.C, clay with 1.47% O.C), and five sampling times (0, 14, 28, 42, and 56 day).
Results: The results showed that application of N containing DMPP compared to N without DMPP in all soils had significant effect (p < 0.001) on reducing nitrification, which was reduced 44.7% on average. DMPP efficiency on nitrification inhibition in experimented soils had significant difference, indicating that nitrification occurs rapidly in soils containing more clay and O.C compared to soils with more sand and low O.C. Nitrification inhibition percentage after 56 day incubation in SL1, SL2, and L were 57%, 46%, and 12%, but in two other soils were about zero. Also there were a positive significant correlation between abundance of AOB and NOB with nitrate concentration (r = 0.6), O.C content (r = 0.9), and total soil N (r = 0.9).
Conclusions: soil nitrification rate are different under influence of factors like soil textural properties and soil O.C content, and DMPP efficiency had inverse relationship with some soil properties including clay%, O.C content, and nitrifier bacterial population. Further these properties can be used in predicting the short term effects of inhibitors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • nitrification inhibition
  • nitrifier bacterial
  • Soil organic carbon
  • fertilizer efficiency
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