پیامد مایه‌زنی قارچ های مایکوریز و باکتری رایزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم تریفولی بر عملکرد شبدر برسیم تحت تنش کادمیوم

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسیارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه زنجان،

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه زنجان،

3 دانش آموخته دکتری گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: کادمیوم یک فلز سنگین است که اثر مخرب زیادی بر کیفیت محصول دارد. افزون بر آن‌یک فلز بسیار متحرک در خاک و محیط‌زیست می‌باشد و گیاهان می‌توانند به آسانی کادمیوم را جذب و آن را به بخش‌های هوایی خود منتقل کنند. با توجه به افزایش مناطق آلوده در کشور و وجود زمین‌های کشاورزی زیر کشت گیاهان علوفه‌ای مختلف و مصرف این محصولات علوفه‌ای در بخش دام موجب شد تا این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تأثیر مایه‌زنی قارچ‌های مایکوریز و باکتری رایزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم تریفولی بر عملکرد و غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف و کادمیوم در گیاه شبدر برسیم تحت تنش کادمیوم اجرا گردد.
مواد و روش‌ها: به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر مایه‌زنی قارچ‌های مایکوریز و رایزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم تریفولی بر عملکرد و غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف و کادمیوم در گیاه شبدر برسیم تحت تنش کادمیوم یک آزمایش با 40 تیمار و در 3 تکرار به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل 5 سطح مختلف آلودگی خاک به کادمیوم (صفر، 10، 25، 50 و 100 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) و 8 سطح مایه‌زنی (مایه‌زنی جدا و مشترک با فانلی‌فورمیس موسه‌آ، ریزوفاگوس ایریگولاریس و رایزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم تریفولی) بودند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر کادمیوم بر وزن خشک، غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم و کادمیوم بخش هوایی و ریشه گیاه معنی-دار (سطح احتمال 5 و 1 درصد) بود. با افزایش غلظت کادمیوم در خاک، وزن خشک بخش هوایی و ریشه و همچنین غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف گیاه نسبت به تیمار شاهد (تیمار صفر کادمیوم) کاهش یافتند. بیشترین وزن خشک بخش هوایی و ریشه و غلظت عناصر غذایی نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در اثر مایه‌زنی مشترک با فانلی‌فورمیس موسه‌آ + رایزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم تریفولی (MT) و تیمار صفر کادمیوم (Cd0) به دست آمدند (جدول 3). همچنین کمترین وزن خشک بخش هوایی و ریشه و غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف در تیمار Cd100 و بدون مایه‌زنی (WI) اندازه‌گیری شدند. آلودگی خاک به کادمیوم موجب کاهش 94/66 و 11/71 درصدی وزن خشک بخش هوایی و ریشه گردید. کمترین غلظت کادمیوم بخش هوایی و ریشه در اثر مایه‌زنی مشترک با فانلی‌فورمیس موسه‌آ + رایزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم تریفولی و تیمار صفر کادمیوم (Cd0) به ترتیب میزان 0012/0 و 0046/0 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم به دست آمدند. همچنین بیشترین غلظت کادمیوم بخش هوایی و ریشه در تیمار Cd100 و بدون مایه‌زنی به ترتیب به میزان 25/11 و 80/17 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج مقایسه میانگین داده‌ها نشان داد که غلظت کادمیوم در ریشه بالاتر از بخش هوایی است و غلظت کادمیوم ریشه در تیمار Cd100 و بدون مایه‌زنی 80/36 درصد بیشتر از غلظت کادمیوم بخش هوایی بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از این پژوهش مشاهده گردید که با افزایش سطح آلودگی در خاک از رشد گیاه کاسته شده و غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف در بخش هوایی و ریشه نیز کاهش یافت. مایه‌زنی خاک با مخلوط قارچ‌ها و باکتری توانست اثر سوء آلودگی خاک به کادمیوم را بر رشد گیاه شبدر کاهش دهد. همچنین مایه‌زنی جداگانه قارچ‌های مایکوریز نیز نسبت به تیمار بدون مایه‌زنی باعث کاهش غلظت کادمیوم در بخش هوایی و ریشه شد ولی استفاده هم‌زمان از قارچ‌های مایکوریز و باکتری رایزوبیوم تأثیر بیشتری در کاهش غلظت کادمیوم بخش هوایی و ریشه گیاه داشت. با توجه به نتایج این مطالعه می‌توان در خاک‌های آلوده برای کاهش اثر سوء کادمیوم و افزایش عملکرد گیاه شبدر از مایه‌زنی مشترک فانلی‌فورمیس موسه‌آ + رایزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم تریفولی استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii on Yield of Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrium) Under Cadmium Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • laila Qasemi far 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Fatemeh Rakhsh 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate, Dept. of Soil Science, University of Zanjan
2 Professor, Dept. of Soil Science, University of Zanjan
3 Ph.D. Graduate, Dept. of Soil Science, University of Zanjan
چکیده [English]

Abstarct
Background and objectives:
Cadmium is a very mobile element in soil that is absorbed by plant roots and translocation of cadmium from root to shoot deteriorates crop quality. It enters the food chains of humans and animals easily and is a potential threat to human health. The increase of contaminated areas in the country and the existence of farms under cultivation of various forages and the use of these forage products in the animal feed led to this study was carried out with the aim of investigating the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii on the yield of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrium) under cadmium stress.
Materials and methods:
A factorial experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, using a completely randomized design with three replications. In this experiment, the effects of different levels of soil cadmium (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and soil inoculation (without inoculation and inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae + Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, Rhizophagus irregularis + Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, Funneliformis mosseae + Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae + Rhizophagus irregularis + Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii) on growth of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrium) were assessed.
Results:
The results of this study showed a significant effect (1% and 5% probability level) due to soil cadmium levels on dry weights and N, P, K and Cd concentrations of aerial parts and roots of berseem clover. The dry weights and N, P and K concentrations of aerial parts and roots of berseem clover decreased as the levels of soil Cd increased. The highest dry weights of aerial parts and roots, N, P and K concentrations were measured in treatment co-inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii and without Cadmium. Also, the lowest dry weights of aerial parts and roots and macronutrient concentrations were observed in treatment 100 mg Cd/kg and without inoculation with microorganism. Soil contamination with Cd decreased the dry weight of aerial parts and roots by 66.49 and 71.11%, respectively. the highest Cd concentrations in aerial parts and roots were measured 11.25 and 17.80 mg/kg in treatment 100 mg Cd/kg and without inoculation with microorganism and the lowest Cd concentrations in aerial parts and roots were 0.0012 and 0.0046 mg/kg in treatment co-inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii and without Cadmium. The results of the mean comparison of data showed that the Cd concentration in the roots was higher than the aerial parts, and in treatment 100 mg Cd/kg without inoculation with microorganism, Cd concentration of roots was 36.8% higher than the Cd concentration in aerial parts.
Conclusion:
Based on the results obtained from this study with the increase in Cd levels of soil, the dry weights and N, P and K concentrations of aerial parts and roots of berseem clover decreased. Soil inoculation with mixture of fungi and bacteria reduced the effect of Cd stress on the growth of clover. Also, the separate inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi also reduced the concentration of Cd in the aerial parts and roots. According to the results of this study, in contaminated soils can be used co-inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii to reduce the Cd concentration and increase the yield of plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metal
  • Rhizophagus irregularis
  • Funneliformis mosseae
  • Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii
  • Soil pollution
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