اثر مایکوریزا و پوسته‌ی‎ تخم‎ مرغ بر صفات رشدی و میزان شاخص خطر گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) تحت شرایط آلودگی خاک به فلزات سنگین

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد ، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان.

2 استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

10.22069/ejsms.2022.18790.2006

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: یکی از معضلات جدی جوامع زیستی، آلودگی محیط زیست با فلزات سنگین در پی افزایش فعالیت‌های صنعتی بدون توجه به ملاحظات زیست محیطی است. با توجه به ماهیت این نوع از آلاینده‌ها و ماندگاری قابل ملاحظه در اجزای محیط زیست بویژه خاک، نیاز به اصلاح خاک‌های آلوده جهت کاهش اثرات این آلاینده‌ها بر گیاهان به عنوان آغازگر زنجیره غذایی، احساس می‌شود. با توجه به اهمیت استفاده از ضایعات در جهت بازیابی آن‌ها و همچنین اثرات متفاوت مایکوریزا (قارچ‌ریشه) در مواجهه با فلزات سنگین، این تحقیق با هدف بررسی اثر پوسته‌ی تخم‌مرغ و مایکوریزا بر تغییرات شاخص خطر در گیاه ریحان مد نظر قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی شامل فاکتورهای خاک (غیرآلوده، آلوده)، پوسته‌ی‌ تخم‌مرغ (صفر، 3 و 5 درصد وزنی) و قارچ‌ریشه (عدم تلقیح، تلقیح شده با گونه‌های Funneliformis mosseae و Rhizophagus irregularis به صورت ترکیبی) در 3 تکرار (در مجموع 36 واحد آزمایشی) اجرا و گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.)، با توجه به سطح برگ زیاد و تولید ماده خشک مناسب، به عنوان گیاه آزمایشی انتخاب گردید. در پایان مؤلفه‌های رشد، غلظت عناصر روی، مس، سرب و کادمیوم در گیاه، ضریب انتقال، فاکتور جابجایی، نسبت و شاخص خطر در گیاه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت.
یافته‌ها: افزایش سطح آلودگی خاک ارتفاع اندام هوایی را 54 درصد و وزن تر اندام هوایی را 70 درصد کاهش داد. استفاده از پوسته‌ی‌ تخم‌مرغ به میزان 5 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد در شرایط خاک آلوده باعث افزایش 32 درصد در ارتفاع اندام هوایی گیاه و 5/16 درصد در وزن تر اندام هوایی گیاه گردید. در مقابل تلقیح قارچ‌ریشه ارتفاع اندام هوایی را 7/25 درصد و وزن تر اندام هوایی را 47/4 درصد افزایش داد. روند نسبتاً مشابهی در خصوص وزن خشک اندام هوایی و وزن خشک ریشه مشاهده شد. تحت شرایط آلودگی خاک، کاربرد 5 درصد وزنی پوسته‌ی‌ تخم‌مرغ در مقایسه با عدم مصرف آن، مقدار عنصر روی، مس و کادمیوم در اندام هوایی گیاه را به ترتیب 7/11، 16/4 و 7/16 درصد کاهش داد. در خاک آلوده به فلزات سنگین کاربرد قارچ‌ریشه باعث کاهش معنی‌دار غلظت عناصر روی، مس، سرب و کادمیوم در اندام هوایی گیاه به مقدار 8/33، 87/2، 9/25 و 3/43 درصد گردید. در خاک آلوده بیشترین مقدار شاخص خطر به میزان 14/2 در تیمار فاقد پوسته‌ی تخم‌مرغ و عدم تلقیح با قارچ‌ریشه مشاهده شد. تحت تأثیر استفاده از 5 درصد پوسته‌ی تخم‌مرغ و تلقیح قارچ‌ریشه، شاخص خطر به ترتیب 9/14 و 36 درصد کاهش یافت. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده استفاده از تیمارهای پوسته‌ی تخم‌مرغ و تلقیح قارچ‌ریشه باعث کاهش شاخص خطر در خاک آلوده گردید که میزان اثر با توجه به نوع عنصر متفاوت گزارش شد. البته در مورد هردو تیمار با توجه به سطح غلظت آلاینده‌ها، مقدار شاخص خطر مصرف گیاه ریحان به پایین‌تر از حد مجاز آن نرسید به نحوی که تحت تأثیر کاربرد 5 درصد پوسته‌ی تخم‌مرغ شاخص خطر، 54/1 و در تیمار تلقیح با قارچ‌ریشه 31/1 گزارش گردید. کمترین میزان شاخص خطر در خاک آلوده تلقیح شده با قارچ‌ریشه به همراه 5 درصد پوسته‌ی تخم‌مرغ به میزان 16/1 محاسبه گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری: گیاه ریحان کشت شده در خاک آلوده علی‌رغم مؤثر بودن تیمارها در کاهش مقدار شاخص خطر، همچنان در حد خطرآفرینی مصرف قرار داشت. در نظر گرفتن نوع و غلظت فلزات سنگین در استفاده بهینه از مواد بازیافتی اصلاحی مانند پوسته‌ی تخم‌مرغ و همچنین اصلاحگرهای زیستی مانند قارچ‌ریشه، می‌تواند از اهمیت ویژه‌ای برخوردار باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Mycorrhiza and Eggshell on Growth Parameters and Hazard Index of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in Multi-metal Contaminated Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rokh Aali Pour 1
  • Nafiseh Rang Zan 2
1 , Department of Soil Science, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan
2 Department of Soil Science, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: One of the serious problems of biological communities is environmental pollution caused by heavy metals due to increase of industrial activities regardless of environmental considerations. According to the nature of these contaminants and considerable persistence in environmental components, especially soil, modification of contaminated soils to mitigate the negative effects of these contaminants on plants as a food chain initiator, is necessary. Considering the importance of using waste to recover them and also the different reaction of mycorrhiza in the face of heavy metals, this study aimed to investigate the effect of eggshell and mycorrhiza on changes in hazard index in basil plant.

Material and methods: This experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design consist of soil factors (non-contaminated, contaminated), eggshell waste (0, 3 and 5% w/w) and mycorrhiza (non-inoculated, inoculated with combined Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis) in 3 replications (36 experimental units). Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was selected as an experimental plant due to its high leaf area and production of suitable dry matter. Finally, growth parameters, concentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in the plant tissue, transfer coefficient, translocation factor, hazard quotient and hazard index of the plant were evaluated.

Results: Increasing the level of soil pollution reduced the height of the shoot by 54% and the fresh weight of the shoot by 70%. The use of eggshell waste by 5% w/w as compared to the control treatment in contaminated soil caused 32% increase in plant shoot height and 16.5% increase in fresh shoot weight. In contrast, root inoculation increased shoot height by 25.7% and shoot fresh weight by 4.47%. A relatively similar trend was observed in case of shoot and root dry weight. Under soil contamination conditions, application of 5% of eggshell waste reduced the amount of zinc, copper and cadmium in the shoots of the plant by 11.7%, 4.16% and 16.7%, respectively. In contaminated soil, application of mycorrhiza caused a significant reduction in concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in the shoots by 33.8%, 2.87, 25.9% and 43.3%, respectively. In contaminated soil, the highest hazard index (2.14) was observed in the treatment without eggshell and not inoculation with mycorrhiza. Because of eggshell application at the rate of 5% and mycorrhiza inoculation, hazard index decreased by 14.9% and 36%, respectively. According to the results, the use of eggshell waste and mycorrhiza inoculation reduced the hazard index in the contaminated soil, which the effects were different according to the type of element. However, in the case of both treatments, according to the level of contaminants, the value of basil hazard index did not fall below the allowable level, so that in 5% eggshell treatment, the hazard index was 1.54 and in mycorrhiza inoculation treatment, 1.31 was reported. The lowest hazard index in contaminated soil (1.16) was observed in treatment of mycorrhiza inoculated along with 5% eggshell.

Conclusion: Basil cultivated in contaminated soil, despite the effectiveness of treatments in reducing the hazard index, was still at the risk of consumption. Considering the type and concentration of heavy metals in the optimal use of recycled materials such as eggshell waste as well as bioremediators such as mycorrhiza can be of particular importance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • mycorrhiza
  • Eggshell
  • Basil
  • Heavy metals
  • Hazard Index
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