پیامد 10 جدایه باکتری گشاینده‌ی (حل کننده) پتاسیم ، فسفر، آهن و کود زیستی پتابارور بر کارکرد و رشد سیب‌زمینی در گلخانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا.

2 استاد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا.

10.22069/ejsms.2022.18870.2015

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: سیب زمینی پنجمین فراورده‌ی کشاورزی جهان هست که خاستگاه کربوهیدرات، پروتئین و اسیدهای آمینه ضروری برای آدمی است. نهاده‌های کشاورزی کارایی ویژه‌ای در افزایش رشد و عملکرد سیب‌زمینی دارند. ولی گاهی کاربرد بی‌رویه ی کودهای شیمیایی دشواری های زیستی و بهداشتی فراوانی را به دنبال دارد. ریزجانداران سودمند خاک می‌توانند کارایی ویژه‌ای در بهبود رشد گیاه، برداشت فراورده‌های کشاورزی و در پی آن کاهش هزینه های آن داشته باشند. چگونگی (کیفیت) خاک، افزون بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی، پیوند نزدیکی با ویژگی های زیستی آن دارد. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی کاربرد 10 سویه باکتری گشاینده‌ی (حل کننده) پتاسیم، فسفر و آهن و کود زیستی پتابارور بر شاخص‌های رشد سیب زمینی رقم جیلی و فراورده‌ی بهداشتی‌تر آن انجام گردید.
مواد و روش ها: این پژوهش در سال 1398 در گلخانه‌ی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی همدان با طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها 10 جدایه باکتری شناسایی شده ی حل کنندة پتاسیم، فسفر و آهن ، یک کودزیستی پتابارور و یک تیمار گواه (شاهد) آزمایش (بدون کود زیستی یا باکتری) بود. ویژگی های اندازه گیری شده، وزن‌ تر غده، تعداد غده، کارکرد بیولوژیک، ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک ریشه، وزن خشک اندام هوایی، درصد ماده خشک، غلظت فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن و روی در ریشه، اندام هوایی، غده و خاک بود.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد باکتری های حل کنندة پتاسیم، فسفر و آهن به گونه ی معنی داری موجب افزایش ویژگی‌های رشد گیاه سیب زمینی و همچنین افزایش جذب عناصر فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن و روی در گیاه شد. در این پژوهش کاراترین باکتری، سودوموناس‌فردریک‌برجینسکی بود که در بیشترشاخص‌های رشد گیاه و جذب عناصر توانمندتر از سایر باکتری‌ها بود. وزن خشک ریشه در تیمار با این باکتری 66/16 گرم بر گلدان شد که در برابر شاهد آزمایش 92/103 درصد افزایش نشان داد. بیشترین افزایش وزن خشک اندام هوایی درتیمار با این باکتری 47 گرم بر گلدان شد که افزایش 88 درصدی نسبت به شاهد آزمایش نشان داد. درمایه-زنی با این باکتری غلظت روی در ریشه، غلظت فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن و روی در اندام هوایی، به ترتیب 034/0، 666/6، 16/333، 460/0، 041/0 میلی‌گرم بر گرم بود که تفاوت معنی دار با شاهد آزمایش و سایر تیمارها داشت. ناکارامدترین باکتری‌ها در این پژوهش، باکتری‌های بریوندیموناسویسکولاریس و انتروباکتر لویدجی بودند.
نتیجه‌گیری: یافته های این پژوهش نشان داد که کاربرد باکتری های حل کنندة پتاسیم به عنوان کود زیستی توانایی بهبود رشد گیاه و افزایش کارکرد آن را دارد و می توان گفت کاربرد کودهای زیستی در کنار کودهای شیمیایی می تواند در کاهش آلودگی های زیست محیطی و کاهش هزینه ها سودمند باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Consequences of 10 Strains of Potassium, phosphorus, iron and Solubilizing Bacteria and Potabarvar Biofertilizer on the production and Growth of Potatoes in the Greenhouse

نویسندگان [English]

  • masoumeh ghanbari 1
  • Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani 2
1 Corresponding Author, Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Soil Science, Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamedan, Iran
2 Professor, Dept. Of Soil Science, Bu-Ali Sina University Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

AbstractAbstract
Background and purpose: Potato is the fifth agricultural crop in the world that is an origin of carbohydrates, proteins and essential amino acids for humans. Agricultural inputs have special performance in increasing the quality and quantity of potatoes. But, the excessive use of chemical fertilizers sometimes leads to many health and biological problems. Useful soil microorganisms can have special efficiency in improving plant growth, harvesting agricultural products and subsequently reducing its costs. In addition to physical and chemical properties, soil condition is closely related to its biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of 10 strains of potassium, phosphorus and iron solubilizing bacteria on the growth parameters of Geely potato cultivar and to produce Geely’s healthier product.
Materials and methods: The research was done in the greenhouse of Hamadan Agricultural Research Center in 1398. It was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments included 10 identified potassium, phosphorus and iron solubilizing bacteria, 1 Potabarvar biofertilizer and 1 control treatment (without any biofertilizer and bacteria). The measured traits were tuber wet weight, number of tubers, biological production, plant height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, dry matter percentage, concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc in roots, shoots, tubers and soil.
Results: The results showed that the application of potassium, phosphorus and iron solubilizing bacteria increased the growth parameters of the potato plants, the uptake of phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc by potatoes significantly. The most efficient bacterium in this study was Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis that was more potent than other bacteria for most plant growth parameters and nutrient uptake . For this treatment, root dry weight was obtained 17.66 g/pot, which was 103.92% higher than the control. By the treatment with this bacterium, the maximum shoot dry weight was 47 g/pot which was 88% higher than the control. The concentrations of zinc in roots, and phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc in shoots, that were obtained from inoculation with Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis, were 0.034, 6.666, 333.16, 460, 0.041, 3.86, 24.20 mg/kg, respectively; These values showed significant differences with the control and other treatments. In this study, Enterobacter ludwigii and Brevundimonas vesicularis were the most inefficient bacteria.
Conclusion: The results of the study showed that application of potassium solubilizing bacteria as biofertilizers can improve plant growth and increase its performance. It can be said that the use of biofertilizers along with chemical fertilizers might be helpful to reduce environmental pollution and to decrease costs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Biofertilizer
  • Potabarvar
  • Potassium solubilizing bacteria
  • Potato performance
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