تاثیر سیستم‏ های کودی شیمیایی، آلی، زیستی و تلفیقی بر حاصلخیزی خاک و وضعیت تغذیه‏ ای کلزا (Brassica napus L.) نشائی

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد ، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 استادیار ،گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان.

3 دانشیار ، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان.

4 استادیار، پژوهشی بخش زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

5 دکتری زراعت، سازمان جهاد کشاورزی گرگان.

10.22069/ejsms.2022.19588.2042

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: افزایش مصرف بی‏رویه کودهای شیمیایی علاوه بر اثر منفی بر محیط‏زیست و سلامت بشر، با کاهش بازده زمین‏های کشاورزی و کیفیت محصولات زراعی همراه بوده است. بنابراین، استفاده ترکیبی از کودهای آلی همراه با کودهای شیمیایی به‏طور گسترده‏ای به‏عنوان روش مدیریت تلفیقی تغذیه گیاهان مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی تاثیر کاربرد جداگانه و تلفیقی کودهای آلی مختلف، کود زیستی و شیمیایی بر غلظت عناصر غذایی در دانه و برگ کلزا (Brassica napus L.) نشائی و حاصلخیزی خاک تحت کشت آن انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای در قالب طرح بلوک کاملا تصادفی با یازده تیمار و سه تکرار در سال زراعی 99-1398 در ایستگاه عراقی محله شهر گرگان (گرگان، ایران) انجام شد. تیمارها شامل: 1) شاهد (بدون کودT1)، 2) کود شیمیاییNPK (T2)، 3) کود شیمیاییNPK+سولفات آهن و روی (T3)، 4) کود پلت ‌مرغی (T4)، 5) کود کمپوست (T5)‌، 6) کود زیستی+سولفات آهن و روی (T6)، 7) کود شیمیایی NPK+اسید هیومیک (T7)، 8) ‌کود‌مرغی 50% + کمپوست‌ 50% + کود شیمیاییNPK 50% + سولفات آهن و روی(T8)، 9) کود مرغی 25%+ کمپوست 25% +کود شیمیایی NPK 100%+ سولفات آهن و روی(T9)، 10) کود مرغی50%+ کمپوست‌ 50%+کود شیمیایی NPK 50%+سولفات آهن و روی+ کود زیستی(T10) و 11) کشت مستقیم بذری +کود شیمیاییNPK (T11) بودند. در پایان دوره کشت، عناصر پرمصرف (نیتروژن، پتاسیم، فسفر) و کم‏مصرف (آهن و روی) در گیاه و خاک اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد کاربرد کود زیستی + سولفات آهن و روی (T6) سبب افزایش فرآهمی نیتروژن و فسفر خاک، و کاهش pH و EC و کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای آلی و زیستی با کود شیمیایی (T8، T9 و T10) باعث افزایش فراهمی پتاسیم، آهن و روی قابل جذب خاک شدند. همچنین مصرف کود زیستی +سولفات آهن و روی (T6) سبب افزایش معنی‏دار (05/0>p) نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم و روی برگ و نیز محتوای عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم دانه نسبت به سایر تیمارها و شاهد با کمترین مقدار این عناصر گردید. غلظت آهن در برگ و دانه کلزا با مصرف تلفیقی کودهای آلی و زیستی به همراه کود شیمیایی (T8، T9 و T10) افزایش قابل توجهی (05/0>p) نسبت به تیمار شاهد داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: تیمارهای T6، T8، T9 و T10 موثرترین تیمارها در افزایش فرآهمی عناصر غذایی و نیازهای تغذیه‏ای گیاه کلزا بودند. بنابراین، کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای شیمیایی با کودهای آلی و زیستی احتمالا به‏دلیل بهبود شرایط فیزیکی، تنوع زیستی و فراهمی عناصر غذایی قابل جذب گیاه، باعث پایداری حاصلخیزی خاک، سلامت محیط زیست و تامین نیازهای تغذیه‏ای کلزا شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of chemical, organic, biological and integrated fertilizer systems on soil fertility and nutritional status of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gholamreza Adim 1
  • Elham Malekzadeh 2
  • Esmaeil Dordipour 3
  • Farshad Kiani 3
  • Hassan Mokhtarpour 4
  • Serajodin Moazzemi 5
1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
3 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
4 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Research Research Center, Education and Extension Organization
5 Agricultural Jihad Organization of Golestan Province
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Overused chemical fertilizers not only is associated with negative impacts on the environment and human health, but also by reducing of agricultural lands yield and crops quality. Therefore, the combined use of organic fertilizers with chemicals ones has been considered as a method of integrated plant nutrition management. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of separate and combined application of different organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on the concentration of nutrients in the seeds and leaf of transplanted rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and soil under cultivation.
Materials and Methods: An experiment in a randomized complete block design with eleven treatments and three replications in the field crop year 2019-2020 on the lands of the Iraqi Agricultural Research Station (IARS) in Gorgan (Gorgan, northern Iran) was performed. Treatments included: 1) Control (T1), 2) NPK chemical fertilizer (T2), 3) NPK+Fe+Zn chemical fertilizers (T3), 4) poultry manure (T4), 5) Compost (T5), 6) Biofertilizer + Fe and Zn chemical fertilizers (T6), 7) NPK chemical fertilizer+ humic acid (T7), 8) 50% poultry manure + 50% Compost + 50% NPK+ Fe and Zn chemical fertilizers (T8), 9) 25% poultry manure + 25% Compost + 100% NPK + Fe and Zn chemical fertilizers (T9), 10) 50% poultry manure + 50% Compost + 50% NPK + Fe and Zn chemical fertilizers + Biofertilizer (T10) and 11) direct sowing of seeds + NPK chemical fertilizer (T11). At the end of the cultivation period, macroelements (N, P, K) and microelements (Fe and Zn) in plants and soil were measured.
Results: The results showed that the application of biofertilizer + Zn + Fe (T6) increased the production of N and soil phosphorus, and decreased pH and EC and the combined application of organic and biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers (T8, T9 and T10) increased the availability of K, Fe and Zn in soil. Also, application of biofertilizer + Fe + Zn (T6) caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in N, P, K and Zn on the leaf and also the content of N, P and K of seed compared to other treatments and control by the lowest amount of these elements. Concentrations of Fe in rapeseed leaf and seeds increased significantly (P<0.05) compared to the control treatment with the combined use of organic and biological and chemical fertilizers (T8, T9 and T10).
Conclusion: T6, T8, T9 and T10 treatments were the most effective treatments in increasing nutrient production and nutritional needs of rapeseed. Therefore, the combined application of chemical fertilizers with organic and biofertilizers probably due to the improvement of physical conditions, biodiversity and availability of plant nutrients, caused soil fertility, environmental health and rapeseed nutritional needs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nutrient availability
  • Rapeseed
  • integrated fertilization
  • Soil properties
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