بررسی تاثیر سه باکتری‌ Bacillus safensis، Bacillus pumilus و Zhihengliuella halotolerans جداسازی شده از ریزوسفر گیاهان شورپسند بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و درصد نشاسته گندم رقم قدس تحت تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار ، گروه محیط زیست، دانشگاه یزد.

2 دانشجوی دکتری ، گروه مدیریت مناطق خشک و بیابانی، دانشگاه یزد.

3 دانشیار ، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه یزد.

4 استادیار، گروه جنگل و مرتع، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان یزد

10.22069/ejsms.2022.18766.2005

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: تقاضا برای گندم به‌عنوان مهترین غله مورد استفاده بشر رو به افزایش است. به‌دلیل تغییرات اقلیمی و مدیریت نادرست آب و خاک، تنش شوری موجب کاهش عملکرد گندم می‌گردد. استفاده از باکتری‌های محرک رشد، راهکاری سازگار با طبیعت برای کاهش اثرات تنش شوری بر عملکرد گندم است. این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی تاثیر باکتری‌های محرک رشد گیاه جداسازی شده از ریزوسفر چند گیاه شورپسند خودروی استان یزد بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و درصد نشاسته گندم رقم قدس طراحی و اجرا گردید.
مواد و روش‌ها: صفات محرک رشد و مقاومت به شوری باکتری‌های جداسازی شده از ریزوسفر گیاهان آتریپلکس، اشنان، گز و سنبله نمکی بررسی گردید. در ادامه، بذر گندم با باکتری‌های برتر از لحاظ صفات محرک رشد گیاه و مقاوم به شوری شاملBacillus safensis، Bacillus pumilus و Zhihengliuella halotolerans تلقیح شده و پس از کشت گلدانی در گلخانه با آب با شوری‌های 4، 8 و 16 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر آبیاری گردید. در پایان دوره رشد، شاخص‌های زیست توده کل، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد و درصد آمیلوز و آمیلوپکتین بذر اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: هر سه باکتری مورد بررسی قادر به تولید ایندول استیک اسید بودند. بیشترین مقدار تولید ایندول استیک اسید در باکتری B. safensis معادل 72/29 میکروگرم بر میلی‌لیتر اندازه‌گیری شد. هرسه باکتری قادر به تولید سیانید هیدروژن بودند و بیشترین مقدار تولید سیانید هیدروژن در باکتری Z. halotolerans با درجه 5 (بسیار بالا) مشاهده شد. هر سه باکتری قادر به تولید سیدروفور بودند. تولید ACC دآمیناز در هر سه باکتری مشاهده شد و بیشترین مقدار آن در باکتری B. pumilus به مقدار 8 میکروگرم بر میلی‌لیتر اندازه‌گیری شد. توانایی انحلال فسفات . halotolerans Z بیشتر از دو برابر باکتری B. safensis بود. شوری باعث کاهش شاخص‌های مورد اندازه‌گیری در گندم شد. در تیمارهای تلقیح شده با باکتری در سطوح تنش شوری (4، 8 و 16 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) متوسط زیست توده کل، آمیلوز و آمیلوپکتین به‌ترتیب تا 5/52، 3/21 و 3/10 درصد نسبت به متوسط این شاخص‌ها در تیمارهای شاهد (بدون باکتری) در همین سطوح شوری افزایش یافت. همچنین باکتری‌ها در این سطوح تنش شوری، وزن سنبله، وزن بذر و تعداد بذر را به‌ترتیب تا حداکثر 22، 6/74 و 6/66 درصد نسبت به شاهد (بدون باکتری) همین سطوح افزایش دادند.
نتیجه‌گیری: باکتری‌های محرک رشد مورد بررسی باعث افزایش اجزای عملکرد گندم قدس تحت تنش شوری شده لذا برای کاهش اثرات شوری بر گندم در شرایط آبیاری با آب شور می‌توان از باکتری‌های مورد بررسی در این آزمایش استفاده کرد. Z. halotolerans در اغلب شاخص‌های مورد بررسی، کارآمدتر از دو باکتری دیگر بود. از آنجا که این آزمایش در شرایط گلخانه انجام شد، پیشنهاد می‌شود برای تکمیل یافته‌ها این آزمایش در شرایط مزرعه هم انجام گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of Bacillus safensis, Bacillus pumilus and Zhihengliuella halotolerance isolated from rhizosphere of halophyte plants on yield, yield components and seed starch of wheat (var. Ghods) under salinity stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asghar Mosleh arany 1
  • Alireza Amini Hajiabadi 2
  • Somayeh Ghasemi 3
  • mohammadhadi Rad 4
1 yazd university
2 Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University, and Central Office of Natural Resources & Watershed Management. Yazd
3 Associate Prof. Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Yazd University
4 Assistant Prof, Forest and Rangeland Division, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resource Research and Education Center, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and purpose: The demand for wheat as the most important grain used by humans is increasing. Due to climate change and improper soil and water management, salinity stress reduces wheat yield. The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is a nature-friendly way to reduce the effects of salinity stress on wheat yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of several saline plants in Yazd province on total biomass and yield components of wheat (var. Ghods).
Materials and Methods: Plant growth promoting characteristics and salinity resistance of bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of Atriplex lentiformis, Seidlitzea rosmarinus, Tamarix ramosissima and Halostachys belangeriana were investigated. Wheat seeds were inoculated with superior bacteria including Bacillus safensis, B. pumilus and Zhihengliuella halotolerans and after planting in the pots in greenhouse conditions was irrigated with water with salinities of 4, 8, and 16 ds/m.
Results: All three bacteria were able to produce auxin. The highest amount of auxin production was measured in B. safensis (29.72 μg / ml). All three bacteria were able to produce hydrogen cyanide and the highest amount of hydrogen cyanide production was observed in Z. halotolerans with grade 5 (very high). All three bacteria were able to produce siderophore. ACC deaminase production was observed in all three bacteria and the highest amount was measured in B. pumilus at 8 μg / ml. Ability to dissolve phosphate in Z. halotolerans was more than twice that of B. safensis. Salinity reduced all the measured indices in wheat. In bacterial inoculated treatments at all salinity stress levels (4, 8 and 16 ds/m), the average of total biomass, amylose and amylopectin increased up to 52.5, 21.3 and 10.3%, respectively, compared to the average of these indices in control treatments (without bacteria) in the same salinity levels. Also, bacteria in these levels increased spike weight, seed weight and number of seeds up to a maximum of 22, 74.6 and 66.6%, respectively, compared to the control (without bacteria) of these salinity levels.
Conclusion: the plant growth promoting bacteria increased yield components of wheat under salinity stress, therefore to reduce the effects of salinity on wheat under saline irrigation conditions; the bacteria studied in this experiment can be used. Z. halotolerans was more efficient than other two bacteria in all of the studied indices. Since the experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions, it is recommended that this experiment be performed in the field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Atriplex
  • "
  • "Bacteria"
  • "Cereals"
  • "PGPR"
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