تاثیر محلول‌پاشی پاییزی نیتروژن، روی و بور در افزایش ذخیره و فراهمی این عناصر برای درختان هلو

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران.

10.22069/ejsms.2022.18598.1996

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: درختان میوه در زمان گلدهی، تقاضای زیادی برای نیتروژن دارند و بیشتر این نیتروژن از اندام‌های ذخیره فراهم می‌گردد به طوری که حدود 70 درصد نیتروژن سرشاخه‌های رویشی و 80 درصد نیتروژن گل‌ها از نیتروژن ذخیره شده در بافت‌های دائمی تامین می‌کنند. بنابراین به منظور بررسی امکان جذب اوره، سولفات روی و بور در محلول‌پاشی پاییزی، انتقال از برگ‌ها به اندام‌های ذخیره و از بافتهای ذخیره به بافت‌های جدید در حال توسعه، این آزمایش انجام شد. از طرف دیگر، نیتروژن مصرفی در اوایل بهار، بیشتر به رشد رویشی سرشاخه‌ها اختصاص پیدا می‌کند در حالی که نیتروژن مصرفی در آخر فصل بیشتر به اندام‌های ذخیره مانند پوست ریشه‌ها و تنه درختان می‌رود
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با هفت تیمار و چهار تکرار در شرق مازندران انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل: 1- شاهد، 2- محلول‌پاشی اوره 10 در هزار، 3- محلول‌پاشی اوره 10 در هزار + سولفات روی 5 در هزار، 4- محلول-پاشی اوره 10 در هزار + سولفات روی 5 در هزار + اسید بوریک 4 در هزار، 5- محلول‌پاشی اوره 15 در هزار + سولفات روی 5 در هزار + اسید بوریک 4 در هزار، 6- محلول‌پاشی اوره 20 در هزار + سولفات روی 5 در هزار + اسید بوریک 4 در هزار، 7- محلول‌پاشی اوره 25 در هزار + سولفات روی 5 در هزار + اسید بوریک 4 در هزار بود.
نتایج: محلول‌پاشی اوره موجب افزایش غلظت نیتروژن برگ‌ها در پاییز شد و همچنین غلظت نیتروژن در پوست و چوب در اندام‌های مختلف را افزایش داد. محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی و اسید بوریک نیز موجب افزایش غلظت روی و بور در برگ شد. نتایج اندازه‌گیری غلظت نیتروژن، روی و بور در بافت برگ سرشاخه‌های جوان در بهار سال پس از محلول پاشی نشان داد که در تیمارهای محلول‌پاشی، غلظت نیتروژن برگ‌های جوان نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. اندازه‌گیری غلظت نیتروژن در برگ سرشاخه‌های جوان، پوست و چوب سرشاخه‌های یک ساله و همچنین جوانه‌های گل و گل نشان داد که تیمارهای محلول‌پاشی تأثیر معنی‌داری بر غلظت نیتروژن پوست و چوب این سرشاخه‌ها داشتند به طوری غلظت نیتروژن از 53/0 درصد در تیمار شاهد به 92/0 درصد در تیمار 25 در هزار اوره با سولفات روی پنج در هزار و اسید بوریک پنج در هزار افزایش یافت. همچنین میانگین غلظت بور در بافت سرشاخه‌ها با اعمال تیمارهای آزمایشی افزایش یافت اما تیمارهای آزمایشی تاثیر معنی‌داری بر غلظت روی در برگ سرشاخه‌ها و بافت سرشاخه‌ها نداشتند.
نتیجه‌گیری: براساس نتایج این آزمایش، به منظور افزایش ذخیره نیتروژن، افزایش میوه‌دهی و کاهش ریزش گل و میوه‌چه، توصیه می‌شود محلول‌پاشی اوره با غلظت 20 تا 25 در هزار، سولفات روی با غلظت پنج در هزار و اسید بوریک با غلظت چهار در هزار در زمان زرد شدن 10 تا 15 درصد برگ‌ها در اواخر پاییز انجام ‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of N, Zn and B fall spray on increasing their storage and availability in peach trees

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Asadi kangarshahi
Soil and Water Research Department, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center
چکیده [English]

Background and purpose: Due to low efficiency of chemical fertilizers and high nitrogen demand for fruit trees at the first stage of growth, early spring growth, flowering and fruit set in fruit trees is heavily dependent on tree N reserves. Therefore, this experiment was performed to investigate the possibility of urea, zinc sulfate and boron uptake, as well as transmission of these materials from leaves to storage organs and from storage tissues to new developing tissues, in autumn foliar application. On the other hand, nitrogen application in early spring is more often devoted to the vegetative growth of the branches, while nitrogen uptake at the end of the season goes more to the storage organs such as root bark and tree trunks.
Material and methods: The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with seven treatments and four replications for three years on 56 trees with the same age and size trees in the east of Mazandaran. The treatments included: 1. Control, 2. Urea (10 g.l-1), 3. Urea (10 g.l-1) + Zinc sulfate (5 g.i-1), 4. Urea (10 g.l-1) + Zinc sulfate (5 g.l-1) + Boric acid (4 g.l-1), 5. Urea (15 g.l-1) + Zinc sulfate (5 g.l-1) + Boric acid (4 g.l-1), 6. Urea (20 g.l-1) + Zinc sulfate (5 g.l-1) + Boric acid (4 g.l-1), 7. Urea (25 g.l-1) + Zinc sulfate (5 g.l-1) + Boric acid (4 g.l-1).
Results: Urea foliar application increased the nitrogen concentration of leaves in autumn and also increased the concentration of nitrogen in bark and wood in various organs. Foliar application of zinc sulfate and boric acid also increased the concentration of zinc and boron in the leaves. Measuring the concentration of nitrogen, zinc and boron in the leaf tissue of young shoots in the spring showed that in foliar spraying treatments, the nitrogen concentration of young leaves increased compared to the control. Measurement of nitrogen concentration in leaves of young shoots, bark and wood of annual shoots as well as flower and flower buds showed that foliar spraying treatments had a significant effect on nitrogen concentration of bark and wood of these shoots. Thus, the nitrogen concentration increased from 0.53% in the control treatment to 0.92% in the treatment 25 gl-1 urea + 5 gl-1 zinc sulfate + 4 gl-1 boric acid.
Conclusion: According to the results of this experiment, in order to increase the storage of nitrogen, increase the fruit set, and reduce the flower and fruitlets drops, it is strongly recommended to do foliar application of urea at 20 to 25 gl-1 + zinc sulfate at 5 gl-1 + boric acid at 4 gl-1 in autumn, when 10 to 15 percent of the leaves are yellow.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nitrogen storage
  • Nutrient uptake
  • Remobilization
  • Urea spray
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