اثر کاربری زمین بر آب‌گریزی خاک در بخش مرکزی استان مازندران

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران

2 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی کرج، کرج، ایران

4 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22069/ejsms.2022.19080.2020

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: آب‌گریزی سبب کاهش نفوذپذیری خاک، فراهمی آب برای گیاهان و سبب افزایش روان‌آب سطحی، فرسایش خاک، جریان-های ترجیحی و کاهش حاصلخیزی محیط می‌شود. کاربری زمین از عوامل موثر بر آب‌گریزی خاک به شمار می‌‌آید. آب‌گریزی می‌تواند رواناب را در مناطقی که تغییر در کاربری زمین رخ می‌دهد افزایش دهد، به این ترتیب شناخت ویژگی‌های آب‌گریزی، برای مدیریت موثر زیست‌محیطی لازم است. تغییر در ویژگی‌های خاک که در نتیجه کاهش آب‌پذیری خاک رخ می‌دهد، می‌تواند بر رشد و عملکرد محصول و کارآیی مصرف آب گیاهان تاثیر بگذارد. ولی تاکنون ارتباط بین آب‌گریزی و ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در کاربری‌های مختلف به ویژه در شرایط احیاء شالیزار و امکان برآورد آن در مقیاس بزرگ ارزیابی نشده است. بنابراین هدف از این پژوهش بررسی پایداری و شدت آب‌گریزی خاک در کاربری‌های مختلف در مرکز استان مازندران و توسعه روابط رگرسیونی بین شاخص‌های آب‌گریزی و ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: در این پژوهش پایداری و شدت آب‌گریزی خاک از شالیزارهای واقع در جلگه تا مناطق مرتفع جنگلی در چهار کاربری مرتع، مرکبات، شالیزار و جنگل واقع در شهرستان آمل بخش مرکزی استان مازندران بررسی شد. 92 نمونه خاک برای تعیین آب‌گریزی و ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در فصل خشک سال جمع‌آوری شد. پایداری آب‌‌گریزی خاک با استفاده از آزمون زمان نفوذ قطره آب (WDPT) و شاخص آب‌‌گریزی (RI) و زاویه تماس خاک-آب (β) با استفاده از روش جذب‌پذیری ذاتی در آزمایشگاه تعیین شد. همبستگی بین شاخص‌های آب‌گریزی و ویژگی‌های خاک تعیین شده و روابط بین شاخص‌های آب‌گریزی و ویژگی‌های خاک به کمک رگرسیون چندمتغیره استخراج شد.
یافته‌ها: آب‌گریزی خاک‌ها در تمام کاربری‌ها زیر-بحرانی بود به طوری که تمامی مقادیر زاویه تماس خاک-آب کمتر از 90 درجه به‌ دست آمد. بیشترین میانگین شاخص‌های آب‌گریزی اندازه‌گیری‌شده در تمامی روش‌ها در خاک‌های جنگلی مشاهده شد به طوری که مقدار Log WDPT تفاوت معنی‌داری با کاربری‌ شالیزار داشت. ضریب هم‌بستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری (**33/0r = ) بین نتایج دو آزمون (Log WDPT و RI) وجود داشت که نشان می‌دهد پایداری آب‌گریزی (Log WDPT) و شدت آب‌گریزی (RI) در خاک‌های مورد بررسی با هم ارتباط مستقیم دارند. همبستگی بین مقدار ماده آلی خاک و β محاسبه‌شده در مرکبات مثبت و معنی‌دار (*42/0r =) بود. هم‌چنین بین Log WDPT و ماده آلی خاک هم‌بستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری (***36/0r = ) وجود داشت. هم‌بستگی‌های منفی و معنی‌داری بین کربنات کلسیم معادل ((CCE و Log WDPT در تمامی منطقه مورد بررسی (**28/0-r = ) و در کاربری شالیزار (*29/0-r = ) مشاهده شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نوع کاربری زمین با تغییر ماده آلی توانست بر آب‌گریزی در خاک‌های مورد بررسی موثر باشد. همچنین روابط رگرسیونی استخراج‌شده نشان داد درصد ماده ‌آلی، نیتروژن کل و CCE از عوامل مهم و موثر بر آب‌گریزی در خاک‌های مورد بررسی می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The impact of land use on soil water repellency in the central part of Mazandaran province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Pishnamaz Amoli 1
  • Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi 2
  • Naser Davatgar 3
  • Elham Chavoshi 1
  • Hossein Torabi Golsefidi 4
1 Dept. of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2 Dept. of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
3 Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO) of Karaj, Karaj, Iran
4 Dept. of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Shahed University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Soil water repellency reduces soil infiltrability, water availability for plants, and can increase surface runoff, soil erosion and preferential flows, and reduces environmental fertility. Land use is one of the factors affecting soil water repellency. Soil water repellency can increase runoff in areas where land use change occurs. Thus, knowledge about the soil water repellency properties is necessary for effective environmental management. Changing the soil properties upon reduction of soil wettability can affect crop growth and yield, and water use efficiency. However, relations between soil water repellency and physical and chemical properties among different land uses in the large scale have not been studied yet. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: i) to investigate the persistence and severity of soil water repellency in different land uses, and ii) to develope regression relations between the water repellency indices and soil physical and chemical properties in the central part of Mazandaran province.
Materials and methods: In this study, the persistence and severity of soil water repellency were investigated in the paddy fields located in the plains to mountainous areas consisting of four land uses of pasture, citrus garden, paddy field, and forest located in Amol city in the central part of Mazandaran province. Ninety-two soil samples were collected to determine soil water repellency and physical and chemical properties in the dry season of the year. The persistence of soil water repellency was determined using the water droplet penetration time (WDPT) test, and water repellency index (RI) and soil-water contact angle (β) were measured using the intrinsic sorptivity test in the laboratory. Correlation between water repellency indices and soil properties was studied. Relations between the water repellency indices and soil properties were derived by multiple regression.
Results: Soil water repellency in all the land uses was sub-critical and all of the soil-water contact angle values were less than 90°. The highest mean values of soil water repellency indices in all methods were found in the forest land use, so that Log WDPT value was significantly different from paddy field land use. Log WDPT showed positive and significant correlations (r = 0.33**) with RI, indicating that the water repellency persistence (i.e., Log WDPT) and water repellency severity (RI) are directly related in the studied soils. The correlation between soil organic matter content and calculated β in the citrus garden land use was positive and significant (r = 0.42*). There was also a positive and significant correlation between Log WDPT and soil organic matter content (r = 0.36***). Negative and significant correlations were found between calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE( and Log WDPT in the whole study area (r = -0.28**) and in the paddy field land use (r = -0.29*)
Conclusion: The results showed that the land use through the effect on the soil organic matter content can induce and intensify water repellency in the studied soils. Moreover, the derived regression relations indicated that soil organic matter content, total nitrogen and CCE are important properties affecting water repellency in the studied soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil water repellency
  • Land use
  • Water droplet penetration time test
  • Intrinsic sorptivity test
  • soil-water contact angle
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